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Andy Bremner BA DPhil

Staff details

PositionReader in Psychology and Head of Department
Department Psychology
Email a.bremner (@gold.ac.uk)
Phone+44 (0)20 7078 5142
Andy Bremner BA DPhil

Summary of research

The development of: object knowledge, spatial representation, body representation, multisensory perception, learning and cognitive control, in infancy and early childhood.

My broad research area is in perceptual and cognitive development in infancy and early childhood. I am director of the Goldsmiths InfantLab where we use a range of behavioural and physiological methods to study infant and child development. The specific research questions that I and my research group are addressing fall into three broad but related topic-areas:

Multisensory development

As adults we integrate the multiple signals from our sense organs into unified functional representations of the world and ourselves. However, the senses provide information in different neural codes. Also the relationships between the senses vary substantially with movements of the body, like when the eyes move in their sockets or when the body changes shape as it grows during development. These considerations highlight the challenge of multisensory integration for the developing human. I have been investigating the development of our abilities to link and integration information across a range of senses, including vision, proprioception, touch and taste.

Spatial representations of the environment, objects and the body in infancy and early childhood

I am particularly interested in the development of the ability to represent spatial relationships within external frames of reference (objects in the environment), and also within intrinsic frames of reference such as the body (locating the body and limbs). The first of these issues has been a substantial focus of cognitive developmental research since Piaget's seminal observations in the 1930s, and I have addressed questions concerning infants' and young children's ability to represent the layout of objects across reorientation, and also the ability to represent and locate hidden objects once out of sight. On the other hand, the development of the ability to locate stimuli with respect to intrinsic frames of reference (e.g. the location of the limbs and stimuli impinging on the body) has been relatively neglected. My colleagues and I have recently been tackling this topic in the context of a large ERC-funded grant: “Human Embodied Multisensory Development” (2009-2014).

The development of memory and cognitive control

Our multisensory representations of objects and the spatial environment emerge in the context of our developing cognitive abilities. I have investigated a range of cognitive functions in early life, including object memory in early infancy, cognitive control in toddlerhood. More recently, with colleagues from the Department of Psychology at Goldsmiths, I have been tracing the development of visual-spatial attention in Western and remote cultures.

Publications

Books:

Bremner, A.J., Lewkowicz, D.J., & Spence, C. (Eds.) (2012). Multisensory development. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Leman, P., Bremner, A.J., Parke, R.D, & Gauvain, M. (2012). Developmental psychology. London, UK: McGraw-Hill.

Holt, N., Bremner, A.J., Sutherland, E., Vliek, M., Passer, M., & Smith, R.  (2012). Psychology: The science of mind and behavior, 2nd Ed. London, UK: McGraw-Hill.

Passer, M., Smith, R., Holt, N., Bremner, A.J., Sutherland, E., & Vliek, M. (2008). Psychology: The science of mind and behaviour. London, UK: McGraw-Hill.

Articles:

Naish, K.R., Houston-Price, C., Bremner, A.J., & Holmes, N.P. (in press). Effects of action observation on corticospinal excitability: Muscle specificity, direction, and timing of the mirror response. Neuropsychologia.

Rigato, S., Begum Ali, J., Van Velzen, J., & Bremner, A.J. (2014). The neural basis of somatosensory remapping develops in human infancy. Current Biology. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2014.04.004

Bremner, A.J., Begum Ali, J., & Cowie, D. (2014). The origins of ability and automaticity in tactile spatial perception. Developmental Science. doi: 10.1111/desc.12185

Le Cornu Knight, F., Longo, M., & Bremner, A.J. (2014). Categorical perception of tactile distance. Cognition, 131, 254-262.

Begum Ali, J., Cowie, D., & Bremner, A.J. (2014). Use of an external frame of reference for touch at 4 years is modulated by sight of the hands. Developmental Science. doi: 10.1111/desc.12184

Rigato, S., Bremner, A.J., Mason, L., Pickering, A., Davis, R., & Van Velzen, J. (2013). The electrophysiological time course of somatosensory spatial remapping: Vision of the hands modulates effects of posture on somatosensory evoked potentials. European Journal of Neuroscience, 38, 2884-2892.

Cowie, D., Makin, T., & Bremner, A.J. (2013). Children’s responses to the Rubber Hand Illusion reveal dissociable pathways in body representations. Psychological Science, 24, 762-769.

Caparos, S., Linnell, K.J., Bremner, A.J., de Fockert, J.W., & Davidoff, J. (2013). Does local/global perceptual bias tell us anything about local/global selective attention? Psychological Science, 24, 206-212.

Naish, K.R., Reader, A.T., Houston-Price, C., Bremner, A.J., & Holmes, N.P. (2013). To eat or not to eat? Kinematics and muscle activity of reach-to-grasp movements are influenced by the action goal, but observers do not detect these differences. Experimental Brain Research, 225, 261-275.

Bremner, A.J., Hill, E.L., Pratt, E., Rigato, S., & Spence, C. (2013). Bodily illusions in young children: Developmental change in the contribution of vision to perceived hand position in early childhood. PLoS ONE, 8, e51887.

Bremner, A.J., Caparos, S., Davidoff, J., de Fockert, J.W., Linnell, K.J., & Spence, C. (2013). "Bouba" and "Kiki" in Namibia? A remote culture make similar shape-sound matches, but different shape-taste matches to Westerners. Cognition, 126, 165-172.

Bremner, A.J., & Cowie, D. (2013). Developmental origins of the hand in the mind, and the role of the hands in the development of the mind. In. Z. Radman (Ed.) The hand: An organ of the mind. What the manual tells the mental (pp. 27-55). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Caparos, S., Ahmed, L., Bremner, A.J., de Fockert, J.W., Linnell, K.J., & Davidoff, J. (2012). Exposure to an urban environment alters the local bias of a remote culture. Cognition, 122, 80-85.

Hill, E.L., Crane, L., & Bremner, A.J. (2012). Developmental disorders and multisensory perception. In. A.J. Bremner, D.J. Lewkowicz & C. Spence (Eds.), Multisensory development (pp. 273-300)Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Bremner, A.J., Holmes, N.P., & Spence, C. (2012). The development of multisensory representations of the body and the space around the body. In. A.J. Bremner, D.J. Lewkowicz & C. Spence (Eds.), Multisensory development (pp. 113-136). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Bremner, A.J., Lewkowicz, D.J., & Spence, C. (2012). The multisensory approach to development. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. In. A.J. Bremner, D.J. Lewkowicz & C. Spence (Eds.), Multisensory development (pp. 1-26). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

de Fockert, J.W., & Bremner, A.J. (2011). Release of inattentional blindness under high working memory load: Elucidating the relationship between working memory and selective attention. Cognition, 121, 400-408.

Spence, C., & Bremner, A.J. (2011). Crossmodal interactions in tactile perception.  In M. J. Hertenstein & S. J. Weiss (Eds.) The handbook of touch (pp. 189-215). Springer Publications.

Chamorro-Premuzic, T., Arteche, A., Bremner, A.J., Greven, C., & Furnham, A. (2010). Soft skills in higher education: Importance and improvement ratings as a function of individual differences and academic performance. Educational Psychology, 30, 221-241.

Mareschal, D., & Bremner, A.J. (2009). Modeling the origins of object knowledge. In B. Hood & L. Santos (Eds.), The origins of object knowledge (pp. 227-261)Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Bremner, A.J., Holmes, N.P., & Spence, C. (2008). Infants lost in (peripersonal) space? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 298-305.

Bremner, A.J., & Spence, C. (2008). Unimodal experience constrains while multisensory experiences enrich cognitive construction. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 31, 335-336.

Bremner, A.J., Mareschal, D., Lloyd-Fox, S., & Spence, C. (2008). Spatial localization of touch in the first year of life: Early influence of a visual spatial code and the development of remapping across changes in limb position. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 137, 149-162.

Bremner, A.J., Bryant, P.E., Mareschal, D., & Volein, Á. (2007). Recognition of complex object-centred spatial configurations in early infancy. Visual Cognition, 15, 896-926.

Bremner, A.J., Mareschal, D., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans,  A. (2007). Cognitive control of sequential knowledge in 2-year-olds: Evidence from a sequence learning and generation task. Psychological Science, 18, 261-266.

Bremner, A.J., Bryant, P.E., & Mareschal, D. (2006). Object-centred spatial reference in 4- month-old infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 29, 1-10.

Mareschal, D., & Bremner, A.J. (2006). When do 4-month-olds remember the "what" and "where" of hidden objects? In M.H. Johnson, & Y. Munakata (Eds.) Attention and Performance XXI: Processes of change in brain and cognitive development. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Bremner, A.J., & Mareschal, D. (2004). Reasoning... what reasoning? Developmental Science, 7, 419- 421.

Bremner, A.J., & Bryant, P.E. (2001). The effect of spatial cues on infants' responses in the AB task, with and without a hidden object. Developmental Science, 4, 408-415.

Published proceedings:

Bremner, A.J., Caparos, S., Davidoff, J., de Fockert, J.W., Linnell, K.J., & Spence, C. (2013). ‘Bouba’ and ‘Kiki’ in Namibia? A remote culture make similar shape-sound matches, but different shape-taste matches to westerners. Multisensory Research, 26(Suppl.), 123.

Spence, C., Deroy, O., & Bremner, A.J. (2013). Questioning the utility of the concept of amodality. Towards a revised framework for understanding crossmodal relations. Multisensory Research, 26(Suppl.), 57. 

Bremner, A.J., Begum, J., Spence, C., & Cowie, D. (2013). Developmental change in multisensory body representations in early childhood. Multisensory Research, 26(Suppl.), 55. 

Bremner, A.J., & Hill, E.L. (2013). Considering the development of developmental disorders of multisensory processes. Multisensory Research, 26(Suppl.), 23.

Davidoff, J., Bremner, A., Caparos, S., Linnell, K., & de Fockert, J. (2012). Enhanced simultaneous contrast and reduced White's Illusion in a remote population. Perception, 41(Suppl.), 1515.

Caparos, S., Linnell, K.J., Bremner, A.J., de Fockert, J.W., & Davidoff, J. (2012). Does local/global perceptual bias tell us anything about local/global selective attention? Object perception, attention and memory (OPAM) 2012 conference report. Visual Cognition, 20(Suppl.), 1016-1020.

Begum, J., Bremner, A.J., & Cowie, D.A. (2012). 4-year-olds localize tactile stimuli using an external frame of reference. Seeing & Perceiving, 25(Suppl.), 41.

Le Cornu Knight, F., Longo, M., & Bremner, A.J. (2012). The categorical perception of tactile distance: A difference in acuity at anatomical landmarks. Seeing & Perceiving, 25(Suppl.), 43.

Quinn, K., Acosta-Saltos, F., de Fockert, J.W., Spence, C., & Bremner, A.J. (2012). Effects of a secondary task and working memory load on multisensory hand position. Seeing & Perceiving, 25(Suppl.), 58.

Cowie, D.A., Makin, T., & Bremner, A.J. (2012). The development of the bodily self: Children’s responses to the Rubber Hand Illusion. Seeing & Perceiving, 25(Suppl.), 87.

Bremner, A.J., van Velzen, J.L., & Rigato, S. (2012). Multisensory hand representations in early life. Seeing & Perceiving,25(Suppl.), 201.

Caparos, S., Ahmed, L., Bremner, A.J., de Fockert, J.W., Linnell, K.J., & Davidoff, J. (2012). Exposure to an urban environment alters the local bias of a remote culture: Object perception, attention and memory (OPAM) 2011 conference report. Visual Cognition, 19(Suppl.), 1303-1307.

Le Cornu Knight, F., Longo, M., & Bremner, A.J. (2012). The categorical segmentation of body representations: A difference in tactile spatial acuity at anatomical landmarks? Cognitive Processing, 13(Suppl.), S45.

Begum, J., Cowie, D., & Bremner, A.J. (2012). 4-year-olds localize tactile stimuli using an external frame of reference. Cognitive Processing, 13(Suppl.), S38.

Areas of supervision

I am particulalrly keen to take on PhD students undertaking research into my areas of research interest described on the main page (Multisensory development, the development of spatial representations of the body and the environment, the development of attention and cognitive control). However, I will also consider supervising a PhD on any aspect of perceptual and cognitive development in infancy and childhood.

Conferences

Cowie, D., & Bremner, A.J. (April 2013). The bodily self in development: Children’s responses to the Rubber Hand Illusion. Poster presented at the Society for Research on Child Development, Seattle, April 2013.

Bremner, A.J. (April 2013). The development of the multisensory basis of human body representations: New evidence from brain and behaviour. Paper presented as part of the symposium “The multisensory approach to development” (chair: A. Bremner), at the Society for Research on Child Development, Seattle, April 2013.

Mason, L., & Bremner, A.J. (April 2013). {reference for typically configured human ahnds in 6-month-old infants. Poster presented at the Society for Research on Child Development, Seattle, April 2013.

Begum, J., Cowie, D.,& Bremner, A.J. (April 2013). Use of an external frame of reference is modulated by sight of the hands. Poster presented at the Society for Research on Child Development, Seattle, April 2013.

Bremner, A.J., & Spence, C. (August 2012). The development of crossmodal correspondences: Evidence from infants, children and remote cultures. Paper presented as part of the symposium “Crossmodal correspondences: Abstraction, association, or analogy?”. (chaired: O. Deroy). 20th European Society for Philosophy and Psychology, University of London. August 2012.

Bremner, A.J., Rigato, S., & Van Velzen, J. (June 2012). Do infants know where their hands are? Lessons from behavioural and ERP responses to tactile stimuli. Poster to be presented at the International Conference on Infant Studies, Minneapolis, 7-9 June 2012.

Rigato, S., van Velzen, J., & Bremner, A.J. (June 2012). The development of multisensory integration: Neural correlates of visual and tactile unimodal and bimodal stimulus combinations. Poster to be presented at the International Conference on Infant Studies, Minneapolis, 7-9 June 2012

Begum, J., Cowie, D., & Bremner, A.J. (September 2011). Four-year-olds localize tactile stimuli using an external frame of reference. Poster presented at the British Psychological Society Developmental Section Annual Conference. Northumbria University. September 2011.

Le Cornu Knight, F., Cowie, D., & Bremner, A.J. (September 2011). Categorical perception of body parts in young children. Poster presented at the British Psychological Society Developmental Section Annual Conference. Northumbria University. September 2011.

Cowie, D., & Bremner, A.J. (September 2011). Localizing one’s own hand: The development of responses to the Rubber Hand Illusion. Paper presented as part of the symposium “The development of hand representations”. (chaired: Dr. Cowie & A.J. BremnerBritish Psychological Society Developmental Section Annual Conference. Northumbria University. September 2011.

Rigato, S., van Velzen, J., & Bremner, A.J. (June 2012). Paper presented as part of the symposium “The development of hand representations”. (chaired: Dr. Cowie & A.J. BremnerBritish Psychological Society Developmental Section Annual Conference. Northumbria University. September 2011.

Bremner, A.J. (September 2011). Discussion of the development of hand representations in infancy and early childhood. Paper presented as part of the symposium “The development of hand representations”. (chaired: Dr. Cowie & A.J. BremnerBritish Psychological Society Developmental Section Annual Conference. Northumbria University. September 2011.

Bremner, A.J., & Jooste, H. (March 2010). Categorical perception of body parts in young children. Paper presented at the Body Representation Workshop, Goldsmiths, March 2010.

Bremner, A.J., Pratt, M., Spence, C., & Hill, E.L. (April 2010). The development of visual-proprioceptive integration in reaching in early childhood. Joint conference of the Experimental Psychology Society, and SEPEX, Granada April 2010.

Bremner, A.J., Pratt, M., Spence, C., & Hill, E.L. (June 2009). The development of visual-proprioceptive integration in reaching in typically developing children and children with a diagnosis of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). DCD VIII: Developmental Coordination Disorder International Conference. Baltimore, US, June 2009.

Bremner, A.J., Pratt, M., Spence, C., & Hill, E.L. (June 2009). The development of visual-proprioceptive integration in reaching in typically developing children and children with a diagnosis of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). 10th International Multisensory Research Forum, The City College of New York, New York City, US, June, 2009.

Hawthorne, H.D., Spence, C., & Bremner, A.J. (June 2009). Eye gaze and head orientation as spatial cues to visual and auditory targets: The head’s wired for sound. 10th International Multisensory Research Forum, The City College of New York, New York City, US, June, 2009.

Bremner, A.J., Acosta-Saltos, F., Spence, C., & de Fockert, J.W. (June 2009). Effects of a secondary task and working memory load on visual-proprioceptive multisensory integration when reaching. 10th International Multisensory Research Forum, The City College of New York, New York City, US, June, 2009.

Bremner, A.J., & Spence, C. (October 2007). Development of the body schema and the representation of peripersonal space in infancy and early childhood. Paper presented at the ESRC Body Representation Workshop, Rovereto, Italy, October, 2007.

Hill, E., Pratt, M., Bremner, A.J., & Spence, C. (October 2007). Do children with DCD evidence a proprioceptive deficit in visual capture of felt limb position. Poster presented at the ESRC Body Representation Workshop, Rovereto, Italy, October, 2007.

Bremner, A.J., Hill, E., Pratt, M., & Spence, C. (October 2007). Investigating the development of visual and proprioceptive contributions to felt limb position. Poster presented at the ESRC Body Representation Workshop, Rovereto, Italy, October, 2007.

Hill, E., Bremner, A.J., Pratt, M., & Spence, C. (October 2007). Developmental change in postural effects on tactile temporal order judgments in early childhood.Poster presented at the ESRC Body Representation Workshop, Rovereto, Italy, October, 2007.

Bremner, A.J., Hill, E., Pratt, M., & Spence, C. (August 2007). An investigation of the development of visual and proprioceptive contributions to felt limb position. Poster presented at ‘BPS Developmental Section Conference, Plymouth, August 2007.

Bremner, A.J., Mareschal, D., Fox, S., & Spence, C.  (August 2007).  Crossmodal representations of peripersonal space in the first year of life: Visual localisation of touch and postural effects on tactual localisation.  Poster presented at ‘BPS Developmental Section Conference, Plymouth, August 2007.

Bremner, A.J., Hill, E., Pratt, M., & Spence, C. (July 2007). An investigation of the development of visual and proprioceptive contributions to felt limb position. Poster presented at ‘Active Touch, preconference workshop, Experimental Psychology Society and the Psychonomics Society, Edinburgh, July 2007.

Bremner, A.J., Mareschal, D., Fox, S., & Spence, C. (July 2007). Crossmodal representations of peripersonal space in the first year of life: Visual localisation of touch and postural effects on tactual localisation.  Poster presented at the joint meeting of the Experimental Psychology Society and the Psychonomics Society, Edinburgh.  July 2007.

Bremner, A.J., Hill, E., Pratt, M., & Spence, C. (January 2007). Developmental change in visual capture of felt limb position? Pilot data from 5- to 7-year-olds. Poster presented at ‘ESRC Workshop on Body Representation'. Department of Experimental Psychology, Manchester University. January 2007.

Bremner, A.J., Mareschal, D., Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (September 2006). Cognitive control of incidentally acquired knowledge in preschool children. Paper presented as part of the symposium Tracking the developmental origins of executive function' (Chaired by M. Nunez & A. Bremner) British Psychological Society Developmental Section Conference'. Royal Holloway, University of London. September 2006.

Bremner, A.J., Harman, S., & El-Haj, S. A-S. (September 2006). Visual preference for novel and familiar faces in adults. Paper presented as part of the symposium ‘Interpreting infant looking preferences for novel and familiar’ (Chaired by A. Bremner) British Psychological Society Developmental Section Conference'. Royal Holloway, University of London.  September 2006.

Bremner, A.J., Mareschal, D., Fox, S., & Spence, C. (June 2006). Crossmodal representations of peripersonal space in the first year of life: Visual localisation of touch and postural effects on tactual localisation.  Paper presented as part of the symposium 'Developing cross-modal representations of objects and space' (Chaired by A. Bremner) 'XVth Biennial International Conference on Infancy Studies'.  Kyoto, Japan.  June 2006.

Bremner, A.J. (March 2006). Object-centred spatial representation in the first year of life.  Paper presented at the ‘Shape Recognition’ workshop, Centre for cognition, Computation and Culture, Goldsmiths, University of London, March, 2006.

Bremner, A.J., Mareschal, D., Fox, S., & Spence, C. (March 2006). Crossmodal representations of peripersonal space in 6-month-old infants. Paper presented at 'British Psychological Society Workshop on Body Representation'. Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford. March 2006.

Bremner, A.J., Mareschal, D., Fox, S., & Spence, C. (September 2005). Postural effects on tactual localisation in 6.5- and 9-month-olds.  Poster presented at the BPS Body Representation Workshop, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, 30th September, 2005.

Bremner, A.J., Destrebecqz, A., Mareschal, D., & Cleeremans, A. (September 2005). A graded approach to testing cognitive control in toddlers: Evidence from a sequence generation task employing the process dissociation procedure.  Paper presented as part of the symposium, 'Developing an ability to use knowledge: Inhibition, cognitive control & meta-representation in infancy and earl childhood'. chaired by A.J. Bremner & V. Southgate. XIIth European Conference on Developmental Psychology, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain, September 2005.

Bremner, A.J., Bryant, P., Mareschal, D., & Volein, A. (April 2005). Complex spatial representation of objects in early infancy.  Society for Research in Child Development, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Bremner, A.J., Destrebecqz, A., Mareschal, D., & Cleeremans, A. (April 2005). Cognitive control in 2-year-olds: Evidence from a sequence generation task employing the process dissociation procedure. Society for Research in Child Development, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Bremner, A.J., Bryant, P.E., & Rogers, B.J. (August 2003). The use of object-centred frames of reference in early infancy.  Paper presented at the Biennial meeting of the European Society for Developmental Psychology, Milan, 2003.

Bremner, A.J., Bryant, P.E., & Rogers, B.J.  (April 2003).  Object representation in infancy and early childhood: differing attentional styles.  Poster presented at the Biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Tampa, 2003.

Bremner, A.J., Bryant, P.E., & Rogers, B.J. (September 2002). Pre-school children’s use of spatial strategies in their object representations: how do young children’s errors relate to perceptual competency in early infancy?  Paper submitted for review for presentation at The British Psychological Society, Developmental Section’s Annual Conference, University of Sussex, UK, September 2002.

Bremner, A.J., Bryant, P.E., & Rogers, B.J. (April 2002). Young infants’ use of spatial frameworks in their perception of objects.  Paper presented as part of a symposium entitled: The development of spatial frameworks in early infancy.  Chaired by Jordy Kaufman and Andrew Bremner.  Presented to The XIIIth Biennial International Conference on Infant Studies, Toronto, Canada, April 2002.

Bremner, A.J., Bryant, P.E., & Rogers, B.J. (September 2001). Infant perception of form: can 4-month-olds accurately map the shape of an object? Paper presented to The British Psychological Society, Developmental and Education Sections’ Joint Annual Conference, Worcester, September 2001.

Bremner, A.J., Bryant, P.E., & Rogers, B.J. (April 2001). Global perception of form in 4-month-old infants. Poster presented at The Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Minneapolis, Minnesota, April 2001.

Bremner, A.J., & Rogers, B.J. (April 2001). A Gibsonian analysis of the development of children’s drawings.  Poster presented at The Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Minneapolis, Minnesota, April 2001.

Bremner, A.J. & Bryant, P.E. (July 2000). The effect of spatial cues on infants’ responses in the AB task, with and without a hidden object.  Poster presented to The XIIth Biennial International Conference on Infant Studies, Brighton, UK, July 2000.

Research Interests

The development of: object knowledge, spatial representation, body representation, multisensory perception, learning and cognitive control, in infancy and early childhood.

My broad research area is in perceptual and cognitive development in infancy and early childhood. I am director of the Goldsmiths InfantLab where we use a range of behavioural and physiological methods to study infant and child development. The specific research questions that I and my research group are addressing fall into three broad but related topic-areas:

Multisensory development

As adults we integrate the multiple signals from our sense organs into unified functional representations of the world and ourselves. However, the senses provide information in different neural codes. Also the relationships between the senses vary substantially with movements of the body, like when the eyes move in their sockets or when the body changes shape as it grows during development. These considerations highlight the challenge of multisensory integration for the developing human. I have been investigating the development of our abilities to link and integration information across a range of senses, including vision, proprioception, touch and taste.

Spatial representations of the environment, objects and the body in infancy and early childhood

I am particularly interested in the development of the ability to represent spatial relationships within external frames of reference (objects in the environment), and also within intrinsic frames of reference such as the body (locating the body and limbs). The first of these issues has been a substantial focus of cognitive developmental research since Piaget's seminal observations in the 1930s, and I have addressed questions concerning infants' and young children's ability to represent the layout of objects across reorientation, and also the ability to represent and locate hidden objects once out of sight. On the other hand, the development of the ability to locate stimuli with respect to intrinsic frames of reference (e.g. the location of the limbs and stimuli impinging on the body) has been relatively neglected. My colleagues and I have recently been tackling this topic in the context of a large ERC-funded grant: “Human Embodied Multisensory Development” (2009-2014).

The development of memory and cognitive control

Our multisensory representations of objects and the spatial environment emerge in the context of our developing cognitive abilities. I have investigated a range of cognitive functions in early life, including object memory in early infancy, cognitive control in toddlerhood. More recently, with colleagues from the Department of Psychology at Goldsmiths, I have been tracing the development of visual-spatial attention in Western and remote cultures.

Publications

Article

Perception of visual-tactile co-location in the first year of life
Freier, L.; Mason, L. and Bremner, A. J. 2016. Perception of visual-tactile co-location in the first year of life. Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649

Sensory development: Childhood changes in visual cortical function
Bremner, A. J. and de Fockert, J. 2016. Sensory development: Childhood changes in visual cortical function. Current Biology, 26(1), R36-R37.

The development of multisensory body representation and awareness continues to 10 years of age: Evidence from the rubber hand illusion
Cowie, D.; Sterling, S. and Bremner, A. J. 2016. The development of multisensory body representation and awareness continues to 10 years of age: Evidence from the rubber hand illusion. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 142, pp. 230-238.

Specialization of the motor system in human infants: From broadly tuned to selectively specialized purposeful actions.
D'Souza, H.; Cowie, D.; Karmiloff-Smith, A. and Bremner, A. J. 2016. Specialization of the motor system in human infants: From broadly tuned to selectively specialized purposeful actions. Developmental Science,

Part-based representations of the body in early childhood: Evidence from perceived distortions of tactile space across limb boundaries
Le Cornu Knight, F.; Cowie, D. and Bremner, A. J. 2016. Part-based representations of the body in early childhood: Evidence from perceived distortions of tactile space across limb boundaries. Developmental Science,

Calling for a developmental perspective on action-based consciousness.
D'Souza, H. and Bremner, A. J. 2016. Calling for a developmental perspective on action-based consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences,

Developing body representations in early life: Combining somatosensation and vision to perceive the interface between the body and the world
Bremner, A. J. 2016. Developing body representations in early life: Combining somatosensation and vision to perceive the interface between the body and the world. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 58, pp. 12-16.

Effects of culture and the urban environment on the development of the Ebbinghaus illusion.
Bremner, A. J.; Doherty, M. J.; Caparos, S.; De Fockert, J. W.; Linnell, K. J. and Davidoff, J. B. 2016. Effects of culture and the urban environment on the development of the Ebbinghaus illusion. Child Development,

Human infants’ ability to perceive touch in external space develops postnatally
Begum Ali, J.; Spence, C. and Bremner, A. J. 2015. Human infants’ ability to perceive touch in external space develops postnatally. Current Biology, 25(20), R978-R979.

Sensorimotor control: Retuning the body–world interface
Bremner, A. J. and van Velzen, J. 2015. Sensorimotor control: Retuning the body–world interface. Current Biology, 25(4), R159-R161.

Effects of action observation on corticospinal excitability: Muscle specificity, direction, and timing of the mirror response
Naish, K. R.; Houston-Price, C.; Bremner, A. J. and Holmes, N. P. 2014. Effects of action observation on corticospinal excitability: Muscle specificity, direction, and timing of the mirror response. Neuropsychologia, 64, pp. 331-348.

The neural basis of somatosensory remapping develops in human infancy
Rigato, S.; Begum Ali, J.; Van Velzen, J. L. and Bremner, A. J. 2014. The neural basis of somatosensory remapping develops in human infancy. Current Biology, 24(11), pp. 1222-1226.

The origins of ability and automaticity in tactile spatial perception
Bremner, A. J.; Begum Ali, J. and Cowie, D. 2014. The origins of ability and automaticity in tactile spatial perception. Developmental Science, 17, pp. 946-947.

Effects of posture on tactile localisation by 4 years of age are modulated by sight of the hands: evidence for an early acquired external spatial frame of reference for touch
Begum Ali, J.; Cowie, D. and Bremner, A. J. 2014. Effects of posture on tactile localisation by 4 years of age are modulated by sight of the hands: evidence for an early acquired external spatial frame of reference for touch. Developmental Science, 17, pp. 935-943.

Categorical perception of tactile distance
Le Cornu Knight, F.; Longo, M. R. and Bremner, A. J. 2014. Categorical perception of tactile distance. Cognition, 131, pp. 254-262.

The electrophysiological time course of somatosensory spatial remapping: vision of the hands modulates effects of posture on somatosensory evoked potentials.
Rigato, Silvia; Bremner, Andrew J.; Mason, Luke; Pickering, Alan; Davis, Robert and Van Velzen, Jose L.. 2013. The electrophysiological time course of somatosensory spatial remapping: vision of the hands modulates effects of posture on somatosensory evoked potentials. European Journal of Neuroscience, 38(6), pp. 2884-2892. ISSN 0953-816X

Children’s Responses to the Rubber-Hand Illusion Reveal Dissociable Pathways in Body Representation
Cowie, Dorothy; Makin, Tamar R. and Bremner, Andrew J.. 2013. Children’s Responses to the Rubber-Hand Illusion Reveal Dissociable Pathways in Body Representation. Psychological Science, 24(5), pp. 762-769. ISSN 0956-7976

Do local and global perceptual biases tell us anything about local and global selective attention?
Caparos, S.; Linnell, Karina J; Bremner, Andrew J.; Fockert, Jan W. de and Davidoff, Jules B.. 2013. Do local and global perceptual biases tell us anything about local and global selective attention? Psychological Science, 24(2), pp. 206-212. ISSN 0956-7976

"Bouba" and "Kiki" in Namibia? A remote culture make similar shape-sound matches, but different shape-taste matches to Westerners
Bremner, Andrew J.; Caparos, Serge and Davidoff, Jules B.. 2013. "Bouba" and "Kiki" in Namibia? A remote culture make similar shape-sound matches, but different shape-taste matches to Westerners. Cognition, 126(2), pp. 165-172. ISSN 0010-0277

Bodily illusions in young children: Developmental change in visual and proprioceptive contributions to perceived hand position.
Bremner, Andrew J.; Hill, Elisabeth L.; Pratt, Michelle L.; Rigato, Silvia and Spence, Charles. 2013. Bodily illusions in young children: Developmental change in visual and proprioceptive contributions to perceived hand position. PLoS ONE, 8(1), e51887. ISSN 1932-6203

To eat or not to eat? Kinematics and muscle activity of reach-to-grasp movements are influenced by the action goal, but observers do not detect these differences
Naish, K. R.; Reader, A. T.; Houston-Price, C.; Bremner, A. J. and Holmes, N. P. 2013. To eat or not to eat? Kinematics and muscle activity of reach-to-grasp movements are influenced by the action goal, but observers do not detect these differences. Experimental Brain Research, 225(2), pp. 261-275.

Children's responses to the rubber-hand illusion reveal dissociable pathways in body representation
Cowie, D.; Makin, T. R. and Bremner, A. J. 2013. Children's responses to the rubber-hand illusion reveal dissociable pathways in body representation. Psychological Science, 24(5), pp. 762-769.

Bodily illusions in young children: Developmental change in visual and proprioceptive contributions to perceived hand position
Bremner, A. J.; Hill, E. L.; Pratt, M. L.; Rigato, S. and Spence, C. 2013. Bodily illusions in young children: Developmental change in visual and proprioceptive contributions to perceived hand position. PLoS ONE, 8(1), e51887.

The electrophysiological time course of somatosensory spatial remapping: vision of the hands modulates effects of posture on somatosensory evoked potentials
Rigato, S.; Bremner, A. J; Mason, L.; Pickering, A.; Davis, R. and Van Velzen, J. L. 2013. The electrophysiological time course of somatosensory spatial remapping: vision of the hands modulates effects of posture on somatosensory evoked potentials. European Journal of Neuroscience, 38, pp. 2884-2892.

Do local and global perceptual biases tell us anything about local and global selective attention?
Caparos, S.; Linnell, K. J.; Bremner, A. J.; de Fockert, J. and Davidoff, J. 2013. Do local and global perceptual biases tell us anything about local and global selective attention? Psychological Science, 24(2), pp. 206-212.

Considering the development of developmental disorders of multisensory processes
Bremner, Andrew J. and Hill, Elisabeth L.. 2013. Considering the development of developmental disorders of multisensory processes. Multisensory Research, 26(1), p. 23.

“Bouba” and “Kiki” in Namibia? A remote culture make similar shape–sound matches, but different shape–taste matches to Westerners
Bremner, A. J.; Caparos, S.; Davidoff, J.; de Fockert, J.; Linnell, K. J. and Spence, C.. 2013. “Bouba” and “Kiki” in Namibia? A remote culture make similar shape–sound matches, but different shape–taste matches to Westerners. Cognition, 126(2), pp. 165-172.

Exposure to an urban environment alters the local bias of a remote culture
Caparos, S.; Ahmed, L.; Bremner, Andrew J.; Fockert, Jan W. de; Linnell, Karina J and Davidoff, Jules B.. 2012. Exposure to an urban environment alters the local bias of a remote culture. Cognition, 122(1), pp. 80-85. ISSN 0010-0277

Release of Inattentional Blindness by High Working Memory Load: Elucidating the Relationship between Working Memory and Selective Attention
Fockert, Jan W. de and Bremner, Andrew J.. 2011. Release of Inattentional Blindness by High Working Memory Load: Elucidating the Relationship between Working Memory and Selective Attention. Cognition, 121(3), pp. 400-408. ISSN 0010-0277

Release of inattentional blindness by high working memory load: Elucidating the relationship between working memory and selective attention
de Fockert, J. W. and Bremner, A. J. 2011. Release of inattentional blindness by high working memory load: Elucidating the relationship between working memory and selective attention. Cognition, 121(3), pp. 400-408.

Soft skills in higher education: importance and improvement ratings as a function of individual differences and academic performance
Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Arteche, Adriane; Bremner, Andrew J.; Greven, Corina and Furnham, Adrian. 2010. Soft skills in higher education: importance and improvement ratings as a function of individual differences and academic performance. Educational Psychology, 30(2), pp. 221-241. ISSN 0144-3410

Soft skills in higher education: importance and improvement ratings as a function of individual differences and academic performance
Chamorro‐Premuzic, T.; Arteche, A.; Bremner, A. J.; Greven, C. and Furnham, A. 2010. Soft skills in higher education: importance and improvement ratings as a function of individual differences and academic performance. Educational Psychology, 30(2), pp. 221-241.

Infants lost in (peripersonal) space?
Bremner, A. J.; Holmes, N. P. and Spence, C. 2008. Infants lost in (peripersonal) space? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12(8), pp. 298-305.

Unimodal experience constrains while multisensory experiences enrich cognitive construction
Bremner, A. J. and Spence, C. 2008. Unimodal experience constrains while multisensory experiences enrich cognitive construction. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 31, pp. 335-336.

Spatial localization of touch in the first year of life: Early influence of a visual spatial code and the development of remapping across changes in limb position.
Bremner, A. J.; Mareschal, D.; Lloyd-Fox, S. and Spence, C. 2008. Spatial localization of touch in the first year of life: Early influence of a visual spatial code and the development of remapping across changes in limb position. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 137(1), pp. 149-162.

Recognition of complex object-centred spatial configurations in early infancy
Bremner, Andrew J.; Bryant, P. E.; Mareschal, Denis and Volein, A.. 2007. Recognition of complex object-centred spatial configurations in early infancy. Visual Cognition, 15(8), pp. 896-926. ISSN 1350-6285

Cognitive control of sequential knowledge in 2-year-olds: Evidence from an incidental sequence-learning and -generation task
Bremner, A. J.; Mareschal, D.; Destrebecqz, A. and Cleeremans, A. 2007. Cognitive control of sequential knowledge in 2-year-olds: Evidence from an incidental sequence-learning and -generation task. Psychological Science, 18(3), pp. 261-266. ISSN 0956-7976

Recognition of complex object-centred spatial configurations in early infancy
Bremner, A. J.; Bryant, P. E.; Mareschal, D. and Volein, Á. 2007. Recognition of complex object-centred spatial configurations in early infancy. Visual Cognition, 15(8), pp. 896-926.

Cognitive control of sequential knowledge in 2-year-olds: evidence from an incidental sequence-learning and generation-task
Bremner, Andrew J.; Mareschal, Denis; Destrebecqz, Arnaud and Cleeremans, Axel. 2007. Cognitive control of sequential knowledge in 2-year-olds: evidence from an incidental sequence-learning and generation-task. Psychological Science, 18(3), pp. 261-266. ISSN 0956-7976

Object-centred spatial reference in 4-month-old infants
Bremner, Andrew J.; Bryant, P. E. and Mareschal, Denis. 2006. Object-centred spatial reference in 4-month-old infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 29(1), pp. 1-10.

Object-centred spatial reference in 4-month-old infants.
Bremner, A. J.; Bryant, P. E. and Mareschal, D. 2006. Object-centred spatial reference in 4-month-old infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 26, pp. 1-10.

Reasoning . . . what reasoning?
Bremner, A. J. and Mareschal, D. 2004. Reasoning . . . what reasoning? Developmental Science, 7, pp. 419-421.

Reasoning . . . what reasoning?
Bremner, Andrew J. and Mareschal, Denis. 2004. Reasoning . . . what reasoning? Developmental Science, 7(4), pp. 419-421. ISSN 1363-755X

The effect of spatial cues on infants’ responses in the AB task, with and without a hidden object.
Bremner, A. J. and Bryant, P. E. 2001. The effect of spatial cues on infants’ responses in the AB task, with and without a hidden object. Developmental Science, 4, pp. 408-415.

Book

Psychology: the science of mind and behaviour
Passer, Michael; Smith, Ronald; Holt, Nigel; Bremner, Andrew J.; Sutherland, Ed and Vliek, Michael. 2008. Psychology: the science of mind and behaviour. Maidenhead: McGraw Hill. ISBN 9780077118365

Book Section

Development of multisensory representations of the body and the space around the body
Bremner, Andrew J.; Holmes, Nicholas P. and Spence, Charles. 2012. Development of multisensory representations of the body and the space around the body. In: Andrew J. Bremner; David J. Lewkowicz and Charles Spence, eds. Multisensory development. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 113-136. ISBN 978-0-19-958605-9

Developmental disorders and multisensory perception
Hill, Elisabeth L.; Crane, Laura and Bremner, Andrew J.. 2012. Developmental disorders and multisensory perception. In: Andrew J. Bremner; David J. Lewkowicz and Charles Spence, eds. Multisensory Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 273-300. ISBN 978-0-19-958605-9

Development of multisensory balance, locomotion and navigation.
Nardini, Marko and Cowie, Dorothy. 2012. Development of multisensory balance, locomotion and navigation. In: Andrew J. Bremner; D Lewkowicz and Charles Spence, eds. Multisensory Development. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 0-1. ISBN 978-0-19-958605-9

Modeling the origins of object knowledge
Mareschal, Denis and Bremner, Andrew J.. 2009. Modeling the origins of object knowledge. In: , ed. The origins of knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 227-262. ISBN 978-0-19-921689-5

When do 4-month-olds remember the "what" and "where" of hidden objects?
Mareschal, D. and Bremner, Andrew J.. 2006. When do 4-month-olds remember the "what" and "where" of hidden objects? In: Y. Munakata and M. Johnson, eds. Processes of change in brain and cognitive development. (21) Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 427-447. ISBN 9780198568742

Crossmodal interactions in tactile perception
Spence, Charles and Bremner, Andrew J.. 2001. Crossmodal interactions in tactile perception. In: Matthew Hertenstein and Sandra Weiss, eds. The Handbook of Touch: Neuroscience, Behavioral, and Health Perspectives. Springer. ISBN 9780826121912

Edited Book

Multisensory Development
Bremner, A. J.; Lewkowicz, D. J. and Spence, C, eds. 2012. Multisensory Development. Oxford: UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199586059

Multisensory Development
Bremner, Andrew J.; Lewkowicz, David J. and Spence, Charles, eds. 2011. Multisensory Development. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

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