Department of Psychology

Professor Alan Pickering

Position held:
Professor of Psychology and Interim Head of Department

+44 (0)20 7919 7894

+44 (0)20 7919 7873

a.pickering (


Room 314 Whitehead Building,
Department of Psychology,
Goldsmiths, University of London,
New Cross, SE14 6NW

Office hours:
by appointment

Summary of research

  • Biological bases of personality traits and their influence on cognitive and motivational processes;
  • related psychopathologies (anxiety, addiction, schizophrenia);
  • dopamine and behaviour;
  • computational models of learning and cognitive control;
  • statistical methods in psychology.

Academic qualifications



Advanced Statistics (3rd year BSc Psychology; MSc Occupational Psychology; MRes Reseach Methods in Psychology;  MPhil/PhD Research training).


Areas of supervision

Practical projects for BSc and MSc students are those which seek to investigate how aspects of motivated learning (eg under the control of small rewards and/or punishments), cognitive control, or probabilistic reasoning, relate to biologically-based personality traits (such as extraversion, impulsivity, anxiety, schizotypy) and/or indirect markers of brain dopaminergic functioning (e.g. eyeblink rate). I am particularly interested in students who want to explore how the ideas emerging from formal computational models might be tested in these studies although students need not have any programming skills in order to do these projects.

For PhDs there is the opportunity to explore a wider range of convergent methods to address these research topics: EEG and neuroimaging; the influence of specific genotypes; looking at behaviours in relevant psychopathologies (addiction, schizophrenia).

I am particularly keen on PhD students with computational skills and/or interest in modelling; such students will extend the computational models of the processes of interest and test their predictions. Prior programming experience is an advantage here but is not necessary as training can be provided.

Professional activities

Committee Member of the British Society for the Psychology of Individual Differences (BSPID)

BSPID website:

Member Memory Disorders Research Society

Assistant Editor, Addiction

Keynote lectures

  • Pickering, A.D. (September, 2011). The psychobiology of major personality dimensions: From genetics to computational models. Opening keynote address to the 1st Meeting of the Latin-American Association for the Investigation of Individual Differences. Castellon, Spain.
  • Pickering, A.D. (July, 2011). Recruiting neuroscience to sharpen personality research. Keynote address presented at the 2nd Annual Conference of the British Society for the Psychology of Individual Differences. London.


(*presenting author)

Pickering, A.D.*, Dawkins, L., & Powell, J.H. (July, 2011). Personality makes the difference: The value of including individual differences variables when studying the psychopharmacology of addiction. Paper presented at the 15th Biennial Meeting of the International Society for the Study of Individual Differences (ISSID). London.

Pickering, A.D.* & Tharp, I.J. (April, 2010). Understanding factors influencing the choices made by impulsive sensation seeking people: A cognitive neuroscience approach. Paper presented at the inaugural meeting of the British Society for the Psychology of Individual Differences, Edinburgh.

Pickering, A. D.*, Tharp, I.J., & Pesola, F. (July, 2009). Why Complex Biocognitive Theories of Personality Need to Adopt Formal Modelling Approaches. Paper presented at the 14th Biennial Meeting of the International Society for the Study of Individual Differences (ISSID), Chicago, USA. (and co-chaired the Symposium of which this paper was part.)

Tharp I. J.*, Pickering A. D., Smillie L. D., & Cooper A. J. (July, 2009). Individual differences in cognitive control during attentional and rule-based set-shifting. Paper presented at the 14th Biennial Meeting of the International Society for the Study of Individual Differences (ISSID), Chicago, USA.

Pickering, A.*, Pesola, F., & Tharp, I. (July, 2008). Building bottom-up cognitive neuroscience models of personality. Paper presented at the 14th European Conference on Personality. Tartu, Estonia.

Pickering, A* & Pesola, F. (April, 2008) Reward prediction errors and reinforcement sensitivity theory: A neurobiological account. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the British Psychological Association, Dublin.

Research interests

My research is focused on the way certain brain systems (particularly those which are modulated by the neurotransmitter dopamine) deliver behaviours such as learning (particularly under reward or punishment) and cognitive control. These interests are investigated via convergent methods: by exploring how biologically-based personality traits (such as extraversion, impulsivity, anxiety, schizotypy) may reflect or influence these processes; by investigating relevant behaviours in individuals with conditions such as schizophrenia and addiction; by neuroimaging to study the brain location and timing of the cognitive and motivational components of interest; and by creating formal computational models that will ultimately allow better tests of the hypotheses proposed.

Selected publications

Number of items: 93.


Pickering, Alan, Cooper, Andrew, Smillie, Luke and Corr, Philip. 2013. On the shoulders of giants. The Psychologist, 26(1), pp. 22-25. ISSN 0952-8229 [Article]

Cochrane, Mary, Petch, Ian and Pickering, Alan. 2012. Aspects of cognitive functioning in schizotypy and schizophrenia: Evidence for a continuum model. Psychiatry Research, 196(2/3), pp. 230-234. ISSN 0165-1781 [Article]

Perkins, Adam M, Inchley-Mort, Sophie L, Pickering, Alan, Corr, Philip J and Burgess, Adrian P. 2012. A facial expression for anxiety. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102(5), pp. 910-924. ISSN 0022-3514 [Article]

Smillie, Luke D., Cooper, Andrew and Pickering, Alan. 2011. Individual differences in reward-prediction-error: extraversion and feedback-related negativity. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 6(5), pp. 646-652. ISSN 1749-5016 [Article]

Powell, Jane, Dawkins, Lynne, West, Robert, Powell, John and Pickering, Alan. 2011. Erratum to: Relapse to smoking during unaided cessation: clinical, cognitive and motivational predictors. Psychopharmacology, 215(3), p. 607. ISSN 0033-3158 [Article]

Powell, Jane H., Dawkins, Lynne, Pickering, Alan, West, Robert and Powell, John F.. 2010. Relapse to smoking during unaided cessation: Clinical, cognitive, and motivational predictors. Psychopharmacology, pp. 1-13. ISSN 0033-3158 [Article]

Pickering, Alan. 2010. Stop! In the Name of Conflict: Breaking into the Heart of Behavioural Inhibition? European Journal of Personality, 24(5), ISSN 0890-2070 [Article]

Cochrane, Mary, Petch, Ian and Pickering, Alan. 2010. Do measures of schizotypal personality provide non-clinical analogues of schizophrenic symptomatology? Psychiatry Research, 176(2), pp. 150-154. ISSN 0165-1781 [Article]

Smillie, Luke D., Cooper, Andrew, Proitsi, Petroula, Powell, John F. and Pickering, Alan. 2010. Variation in DRD2 dopamine gene predicts extraverted personality. Neuroscience Letters, 468(3), pp. 234-237. ISSN 03043940 [Article]

Cochrane, Mary, Petch, Ian and Pickering, Alan. 2010. Do measures of schizotypal personality provide non-clinical analogues of schizophrenic symptomatology? Psychiatry Research, 176(2-3), pp. 150-154. [Article]

Powell, Jane H., Dawkins, Lynne, West, Robert, Powell, John and Pickering, Alan. 2010. Relapse to smoking during unaided cessation: clinical, cognitive and motivational predictors. Psychopharmacology, 212(4), pp. 537-549. ISSN 0033-3158 [Article]

Dawkins, Lynne, Powell, Jane H., Pickering, Alan, Powell, John F. and West, Robert. 2009. Patterns of change in withdrawal symptoms, desire to smoke, reward motivation and response inhibition across 3 months of smoking abstinence. Addiction, 104(5), pp. 850-858. ISSN 0965-2140 [Article]

Steel, Craig, Hemsley, David R and Pickering, Alan. 2007. Associations between schizotypal personality traits and the facilitation and inhibition of the speed of contextually cued responses. Psychiatry research, 150(2), pp. 131-140. ISSN 0165-1781 [Article]

Powell, Jane H., Dawkins, Lynne, Pickering, Alan and West, Robert. 2007. A double-blind placebo-controlled experimental study of nicotine: II-Effects on response inhibition and executive functioning. Psychopharmacology, 190(4), pp. 457-468. ISSN 00333158 [Article]

Steel, Craig, Hemsley, David and Pickering, Alan. 2007. Associations between schizotypal personality traits and the facilitation and inhibition of the speed of contextually cued responses. Psychiatry Research, 150(2), pp. 131-141. ISSN 01651781 [Article]

Pickering, Alan, Dawkins, Lynne, Powell, Jane H. and West, Robert. 2006. A double-blind placebo controlled experimental study of nicotine: I - effects on incentive motivation. Psychopharmacology, 189(3), pp. 355-367. ISSN 00333158 [Article]

Smillie, Luke D., Pickering, Alan and Jackson, Chris J.. 2006. The new reinforcement sensitivity theory: Implications for personality measurement. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10(4), pp. 320-335. ISSN 10888683 [Article]

Pickering, Alan, Davidoff, Jules B., Fagot, J. and Goldstein, J.. 2006. Cross-species differences in color categorization. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 13(2), pp. 275-280. ISSN 10699384 [Article]

Ayers, S and Pickering, Alan. 2005. Women's expectations and experience of birth. Psychology and Health, 20(1), pp. 79-92. ISSN 0887-0446 [Article]

Cochrane, M and Pickering, Alan. 2004. The influence of schizotypal personality on measures of executive function in healthy individuals. Schizophrenia Research, 67(1), pp. 243-244. ISSN 0920-9964 [Article]

Powell, Jane H., Pickering, Alan, Dawkins, Lynne, West, Robert and Powell, John F.. 2004. Cognitive and psychological correlates of smoking abstinence, and predictors of successful cessation. Addictive Behaviors, 29(7), pp. 1407-1426. ISSN 03064603 [Article]

Junger, Marianne, West, Robert, Maassen, Gerard, Train, Helen, Pickering, Alan, Taylor, Eric and West, Anne. 2004. Delinquency and accidents in children. The ADHD Report, 12(3), pp. 6-15. ISSN 1065-8025 [Article]

Maddox, W Todd, Ashby, F Gregory, Ing, A David and Pickering, Alan. 2004. Disrupting feedback processing interferes with rule-based but not information-integration category learning. Memory & Cognition, 32(4), pp. 582-591. ISSN 0090-502X [Article]

Valentine, Tim , Darling, S. and Pickering, Alan. 2003. Characteristics of eyewitness identification that predict the outcome of real lineups. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 17(8), pp. 969-993. ISSN 08884080 [Article]

O'Tuathaigh, CMP, Salum, C, Young, AMJ, Pickering, Alan, Joseph, MH and Moran, PM. 2003. The effect of amphetamine on Kamin blocking and overshadowing. Behavioural Pharmacology, 14(4), pp. 315-322. ISSN 0955-8810 [Article]

Pickering, Alan, Hemsley, D., Gray, N. and Gray, J.. 2002. The partial reinforcement extinction effect in humans: Effects of schizophrenia, schizotypy and low doses of amphetamine. Behavioural Brain Research, 133(2), pp. 333-342. ISSN 01664328 [Article]

Steel, C, Hemsley, DR and Pickering, Alan. 2002. Distractor cueing effects on choice reaction time and their relationship with schizotypal personality. British journal of clinical psychology, 41(2), pp. 143-156. ISSN 0144-6657 [Article]

Peters, Emmanuelle R, Nunn, Julia A, Pickering, Alan and Hemsley, David R. 2002. Perceptual organization deficits in psychotic patients. Psychiatry Research, 110(2), pp. 125-135. ISSN 0165-1781 [Article]

Steel, C, Haworth, EJ, Peters, E, Hemsley, DR, Sharma, T, Gray, JA, Pickering, Alan, Gregory, L, Simmons, A, Bullmore, ET and Williams, SCR. 2001. Neuroimaging correlates of negative priming. Neuroreport, 12(16), p. 3619. ISSN 0959-4965 [Article]

McCartan, Denise, Bell, Robert, Green, Jonathan F, Campbell, Clarke, Trimble, Karen, Pickering, Alan and King, David J. 2001. The differential effects of chlorpromazine and haloperidol on latent inhibition in healthy volunteers. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 15(2), pp. 96-104. ISSN 0269-8811 [Article]

Bateman, Andrew, Culpan, Jane, Pickering, Alan, Powell, Jane H., Scott, Oona and Greenwood, Richard. 2001. The effect of aerobic training on rehabilitation outcomes after recent severe brain injury: A randomized controlled evaluation. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 82(2), pp. 174-182. ISSN 00039993 [Article]

Peters, Emmanuelle R, Pickering, Alan, Kent, Andrew, Glasper, Anthony, Irani, Mondana, David, Anthony S, Day, Samantha and Hemsley, David R. 2000. The relationship between cognitive inhibition and psychotic symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109(3), p. 386. ISSN 0021-843X [Article]

West, Robert, Train, Helen, Junger, Marianne, West, Anne and Pickering, Alan. 1999. Accidents and problem behaviour. The Psychologist, 12(8), pp. 395-397. ISSN 0952-8229 [Article]

Abrahams, Sharon, Morris, RG, Polkey, CE, Jarosz, JM, Cox, TCS, Graves, M and Pickering, Alan. 1999. Hippocampal involvement in spatial and working memory: a structural MRI analysis of patients with unilateral mesial temporal lobe sclerosis. Brain and Cognition, 41(1), pp. 39-65. ISSN 0278-2626 [Article]

Pickering, Alan, Corr, PJ and Gray, JA. 1999. Interactions and reinforcement sensitivity theory: A theoretical analysis of Rusting and Larsen (1997). Personality and Individual Differences, 26(2), pp. 357-365. ISSN 0191-8869) [Article]

Salum, Cristiane, Roque da Silva, Antônio and Pickering, Alan. 1999. Striatal dopamine in attentional learning: a computational model. Neurocomputing, 26, pp. 845-854. ISSN 0925-2312 [Article]

Pickering, Alan. 1999. The neural bases of recollection and familiarity: Preliminary tests of the Aggleton--Brown mode. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22(03), pp. 465-466. ISSN 0140-525X [Article]

Pickering, Alan and Gray, Jeffrey A. 1999. The neuroscience of personality. Handbook of personality: Theory and research, 2, pp. 277-299. [Article]

Corr, Philip J, Pickering, Alan and Gray, Jeffrey A. 1997. Personality, punishment, and procedural learning: a test of J. A. Gray's anxiety theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(2), pp. 337-344. ISSN 0022-3514 [Article]

Gray, NS, Pickering, Alan, Gray, JA, Jones, Steven H, Abrahams, S and Hemsley, DR. 1997. Kamin blocking is not disrupted by amphetamine in human subjects. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 11(4), pp. 301-311. ISSN 0269-8811 [Article]

Pickering, Alan. 1997. The conceptual nervous system and personality: From Pavlov to neural networks. European Psychologist, 2(2), pp. 139-163. ISSN 1016-9040 [Article]

Abrahams, S, Goldstein, LH, Al-Chalabi, A, Pickering, Alan, Morris, RG, Passingham, RE, Brooks, DJ and Leigh, PN. 1997. Relation between cognitive dysfunction and pseudobulbar palsy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 62(5), pp. 464-472. ISSN 0022-3050 [Article]

Ayers, S and Pickering, Alan. 1997. Psychological factors and ultrasound: differences between routine and high-risk scans. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 9(2), pp. 76-79. ISSN 0960-7692 [Article]

Abrahams, S, Pickering, Alan, Polkey, CE and Morris, RG. 1997. Spatial memory deficits in patients with unilateral damage to the right hippocampal formation. Neuropsychologia, 35(1), pp. 11-24. ISSN 0028-3932 [Article]

Pickering, Alan, Hernaiz, H and Gray, JA. 1997. El uso del reforzamiento verbal en la teoría de Gray: Un estudio piloto. Revista de psicología general y aplicada: Revista de la Federación Española de Asociaciones de Psicología, 50(1), pp. 61-71. ISSN 0373-2002 [Article]

White, REB, Pickering, Alan and Spathis, GS. 1996. Mood disorder and chronic hypercalcemia. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 41(4), pp. 343-347. ISSN 0022-3999 [Article]

Gray, NS, Pickering, Alan and Gray, JA. 1996. Increased schizotypy scores in normal subjects following the oral administration of d-amphetamine. Schizophrenia Research, 18(2), p. 119. ISSN 0920-9964 [Article]

Page, Michael PA, Howard, Robert J, O'Brien, John T, Burtonthomas, MS and Pickering, Alan. 1996. Use of neural networks in brain SPECT to diagnose Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 37(2), pp. 195-200. ISSN 0161-5505 [Article]

Tata, Philip R, Leibowitz, Judy A, Prunty, Mark J, Cameron, Mary and Pickering, Alan. 1996. Attentional bias in obsessional compulsive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 34(1), pp. 53-60. ISSN 0005-7967 [Article]

Morris, Robin G, Pickering, Alan, Abrahams, Sharon and Feigenbaum, Janet D. 1996. Space and the hippocampal formation in humans. Brain Research Bulletin, 40(5), pp. 487-490. ISSN 0361-9230 [Article]

Corr, Philip J, Pickering, Alan and Gray, Jeffrey A. 1995. Personality and reinforcement in associative and instrumental learning. Personality and Individual Differences, 19(1), pp. 47-71. ISSN 0191-8869 [Article]

Corr, Philip J, Pickering, Alan and Gray, Jeffrey A. 1995. Sociability/impulsivity and caffeine-induced arousal: Critical flicker/fusion frequency and procedural learning. Personality and Individual Differences, 18(6), pp. 713-730. ISSN 0191-8869 [Article]

Pickering, Alan, Díaz, Amelia and Gray, Jeffrey A. 1995. Personality and reinforcement: An exploration using a maze-learning task. Personality and Individual Differences, 18(4), pp. 541-558. ISSN 0191-8869 [Article]

Gray, Nicola S, Pickering, Alan and Gray, Jeffrey A. 1994. Psychoticism and dopamine D2 binding in the basal ganglia using single photon emission tomography. Personality and Individual Differences, 17(3), pp. 431-434. ISSN 0191-8869 [Article]

Peters, Emmanuelle R, Pickering, Alan and Hemsley, David R. 1994. "Cognitive inhibition" and positive symptomatology in schizotypy. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33(1), pp. 33-48. ISSN 0144-6657 [Article]

Tata, Philip R, Rollings, J, Collins, M, Pickering, Alan and Jacobson, RR. 1994. Lack of cognitive recovery following withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine use. Psychological Medicine, 24(01), pp. 203-213. ISSN 0033-2917 [Article]

D\'\iaz , Amelia and Pickering, Alan. 1993. The relationship between Gray's and Eysenck's personality spaces. Personality and Individual Differences, 15(3), pp. 297-305. ISSN 0191-8869 [Article]

Pickering, Alan. 1993. Schizophrenia: In context or in the garbage can? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16(1), pp. 205-206. ISSN 0140-525X [Article]

Pickering, Alan. 1993. The hippocampus and space: are we flogging a dead (sea-) horse? Hippocampus, 3(1), pp. 113-114. ISSN 1050-9631 [Article]

Powell, Jane H., Pickering, Alan, Wyke, Maria and Goggin, T. 1993. The effects of anti-hypertensive medication on learning and memory. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 35(2), pp. 105-113. ISSN 0306-5251 [Article]

Gray, NS, Pickering, Alan, Hemsley, DR, Dawling, S and Gray, JA. 1992. Abolition of latent inhibition by a single 5 mg dose ofd-amphetamine in man. Psychopharmacology, 107(2), pp. 425-430. ISSN 0033-3158 [Article]

Meudell, Peter R, Mayes, Andrew R, MacDonald, C, Pickering, Alan and Fairbairn, Andrew F. 1991. Korsakoff amnesics are poor at judging the sequence of two tones. Cortex, 27(3), pp. 431-439. ISSN 0010-9452 [Article]

Paller, Ken A, Mayes, Andrew R, McDermott, Mark, Pickering, Alan and Meudell, Peter R. 1991. Indirect measures of memory in a duration-judgement task are normal in amnesic patients. Neuropsychologia, 29(10), pp. 1007-1018. ISSN 0028-3932 [Article]

Shoqeirat, Mohammed A, Mayes, Andrew, MacDonald, Christopher, Meudell, Peter and Pickering, Alan. 1990. Performance on tests sensitive to frontal lobe lesions by patients with organic amnesia: Leng & Parkin revisited. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 29(4), pp. 401-408. ISSN 0144-6657 [Article]

Pickering, Alan, Mayes, Andrew R and Fairbairn, Andrew F. 1989. Amnesia and memory for modality information. Neuropsychologia, 27(10), pp. 1249-1259. ISSN 0028-3932 [Article]

Mayes, A. R., Baddeley, A. D., Cockburn, J., Meudell, P R., Pickering, Alan and Wilson, B.. 1989. Why are amnesic judgements of recency and frequency made in a qualitatively different way from those of normal people? Cortex, 25(3), pp. 479-488. ISSN 0010-9452 [Article]

Mayes, Andrew R, Meudell, Peter R, Mann, David and Pickering, Alan. 1988. Location of lesions in Korsakoff's syndrome: neuropsychological and neuropathological data on two patients. Cortex, 24(3), pp. 367-388. ISSN 0010-9452 [Article]

Pickering, Alan, Mayes, AR and Shoqeirat, M. 1988. Priming Tasks in Normal Subjects: What Do They Reveal About Amnesia? Practical Aspects of Memory: Clinical and educational implications, 2, [Article]

Mayes, Andrew R, Pickering, Alan and Fairbairn, Andrew. 1987. Amnesic sensitivity to proactive interference: Its relationship to priming and the causes of amnesia. Neuropsychologia, 25(1), pp. 211-220. ISSN 0028-3932 [Article]

Meudell, PR, Mayes, AR, Ostergaard, A and Pickering, Alan. 1985. Recency and frequency judgements in alcoholic amnesics and normal people with poor memory. Cortex, 21(4), pp. 487-511. ISSN 0010-9452 [Article]

Mayes, AR, Meudell, PR and Pickering, Alan. 1985. Is organic amnesia caused by a selective deficit in remembering contextual information? Cortex, 21(2), pp. 167-202. ISSN 0010-9452 [Article]

Book Section

Müllensiefen, Daniel, Davies, Christopher, Dossman, Lauri, Hansen, Jon Ludvig and Pickering, Alan. 2013. Implicit and Explicit Effects of Music on Brand Perception in TV Ads. In: C Ringe, K Bronner and R Hirt, eds. Audio Branding Academy Yearbook 2012/2013. Hamburg: Audio Branding Academy, pp. 139-153. ISBN 9783832978785 [Book Section]

Ferguson, Eamonn, Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas, Pickering, Alan and Weiss, Alexander. 2011. Five Into One Doesn’t Go: A Critique of the General Factor of Personality. In: Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic, Sophie von Stumm and Adrian Furnham, eds. The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Individual Differences. London: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4443-3438-8 [Book Section]

Pickering, Alan. 2008. Formal and computational models of Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory. In: Philip J. Corr, ed. The Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 453-480. ISBN 9780521617369 [Book Section]

Pickering, Alan and Corr, Philip. 2008. J.A.Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) of personality. In: Gregory Boyle, Gerald Matthews and Donald Saklofske, eds. The SAGE Handbook of Personality: Theory and Assessment Personality Measurement and Testing (Volume 2). London, New Delhi and Thousand Oaks: Sage, pp. 239-255. ISBN 9781412946520 [Book Section]

Pickering, Alan and Smillie, Luke D.. 2008. The behavioural activation system: Challenges and opportunities. In: Philip J. Corr, ed. The Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 120-153. ISBN 9780521617369 [Book Section]

Pickering, Alan. 2004. The neuropsychology of impulsive antisocial sensation seeking personality traits: From dopamine to hippocampal function. In: Robert M. Stelmack, ed. On the psychobiology of personality : essays in honor of Marvin Zuckerman. Amsterdam: Boston, MA: Elsevier, pp. 455-478. ISBN 9780080442099 [Book Section]

Pickering, Alan and Gray, JA. 2001. Dopamine, appetitive reinforcement, and the neuropsychology of human learning: An individual differences approach. In: , ed. Advances in Research on Temperament. Germany: PABST Science Publishers Lengerich,, Germany, pp. 113-149. ISBN 3-936142-07-6 [Book Section]

Pickering, Alan. 1997. Conditioning and learning. In: Andrew Baum, ed. Cambridge Handbook of Psychology, Health, and Medicine. Cambridge, UK; New York, NY, USA : Cambridge University Press, pp. 12-17. ISBN 9780521430739 [Book Section]

Pickering, Alan, Corr, Philip J, Powell, Jane H, Kumari, Veena, Thornton, Jasper C and Gray, Jeffrey A. 1997. Individual differences in reactions to reinforcing stimuli are neither black nor white: To what extent are they Gray? In: Helmuth Nyborg, ed. The scientific study of human nature : tribute to Hans J. Eysenck at eighty. Oxford; New York: Elsevier Science, pp. 36-67. ISBN 9780585474496 [Book Section]

Pickering, Alan. 1994. The flexibility of implicit memory: An exploration using discrimination learning. In: M Jane Riddoch and Glyn W. Humphreys, eds. Cognitive neuropsychology and cognitive rehabilitation. Hove, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Ltd, pp. 549-569. ISBN 9780863772917 [Book Section]


Warren, Fiona, Preedy-Fayers, Katherine, McGauley, Gill, Pickering, Alan, Geddes, Kingsley Norton John R and Dolan, Bridget. 2003. Review of treatments for severe personality disorder. Other. Home Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorate.

Junger, M, West, R, Train, H, Pickering, Alan, Taylor, E and West, A. 1998. Childhood accidents and their relationship with problem behaviour. Technical Report. Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, London.

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Content last modified: 21 Jan 2015

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