Navigation

Professor Adam Rutland BSc PhD

Staff details

PositionProfessor of Social Developmental Psychology
Department Psychology
Email a.rutland (@gold.ac.uk)
Phone+44 (0)20 7078 5442
Professor Adam Rutland BSc PhD

Research Interests

Social-cognitive development, prejudice, intergroup relationships, social reasoning and morality; Peer exclusion, rejection, group dynamics and victimization; Cross-group friendships, intergroup attitudes, psychological well being; Interventions to reduce prejudice, intergroup contact; Children’s acculturation, ethnic and national identification.

For details about the Developmental Intergroup Processes (DIP) Lab at Goldsmiths go to http://diplab.wordpress.com/about/

Areas of supervision

I supervise students interested in social developmental psychology focused on the research topics shown above

Conferences

Recent Referred International Conference Papers 

Leman, P., Skipper, Y., Watling, D and Rutland, A. (2012).  Learning relationships in an ethnically diverse setting: Peer collaboration and the Slough Science Project. Paper presented at the "Patchwork. Learning diversities" Conference, University of Belgrade, Serbia, 30th August – 1st September 2012. 

Rutland, A. & Killen, M. (2012). Moral development in intergroup contexts: The tension between fairness and group identity. Paper presented in a symposium convened by J. Smetana entitled “Moral development in adolescence’ at the 13th Biennial Conference of the European Association for Research on Adolescence, University of Athens, Island of Spetses, Greece, 29th August – 1st September.

Rutland, A., Jugert, P., Cameron, L., et al. (2011). A longitudinal study of children’s cross-ethnic peer relationships: The role of social-emotional development, ethnicity and school ethnic diversity. Paper presented in a symposium convened by A. Rutland and D. Nesdale entitled ‘Challenging socially exclusive peer relations in children’ at the 15th European Conference on Developmental Psychology, Bergen, Norway, 23-27th August. 

Rutland, A. (2012). Group Identity and Social Cognition: The Development of Intergroup Bias and Differentiation within Peer Groups. Paper in an Invited Symposium entitled “When, Why, and How Group Identity becomes Ingroup Bias: The Role of Social Cognition, Social Identity, and Morality”, convened by Melanie Killen at the at Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD), Montreal, Canada, 31st March – 2nd April.

Rutland, A., Abrams, D., Palmer, S. & Lee, S. (2011). Children’s understanding of group dynamics: The role of group norms, threat and status. Paper presented in a symposium convened by A. Rutland and H. Tenenbaum entitled ‘Is it OK to socially exclude or include? The development of reasoning about and understanding of social exclusion and inclusion’ at the at Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD), Montreal, Canada, 31st March – 2nd April.

Mulvey, K. L. S., Hitti, A., Killen, M., Rutland, A. & Abrams., D. (2011). Social seasoning about exclusion and group dynamics. Paper presented in a symposium convened by A. Rutland and H. Tenenbaum entitled ‘Is it OK to socially exclude or include? The development of reasoning about and understanding of social exclusion and inclusion’ at the at Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD), Montreal, Canada, 31st March – 2nd April.

Rutland . A. & Fitroy, S. (2010). Children’s ‘Theory of Social Mind’ (ToSM), social norms and social emotions: Their role in the control of intergroup bias. Paper presented at Small Group Meeting of the European Association of Social Psychology on “Developmental Perspectives on Intergroup Prejudice: Advances in Theory, Measurement, and Intervention”, Lisbon University Institute (ISCTE-IUL), Portugal, 5-8th July.

Jugert, P., Noack, P. & Rutland, A. (2008).Friendship Preferences among German and Turkish Preadolescents. Paper presented at Small Group Meeting of the European Association of Social Psychology on “Developmental Perspectives on Intergroup Prejudice: Advances in Theory, Measurement, and Intervention”, Lisbon University Institute (ISCTE-IUL), Portugal, 5-8th July.

Rodrigues, R., Monteiro, M. B., Rutland, A. & Feddes, A. (2010). Why a (mis)match? Developmental association between implicit and explicit ethnic attitudes with accountability and anti-prejudice norm as moderators. Paper presented at Small Group Meeting of the European Association of Social Psychology on “Developmental Perspectives on Intergroup Prejudice: Advances in Theory, Measurement, and Intervention”, Lisbon University Institute (ISCTE-IUL), Portugal, 5-8th July.

Rutland . A. & Fitroy, S. (2010). The role of social group norms and social-cognitive ability in the control of explicit ethnic discrimination during childhood. Paper presented at International Conference on “Discrimination and Tolerance in Intergroup Relations”, University of Jena, Germany, 30th June – 3rd July.

Lee, S., Abrams, D. & Rutland, A. (2010). Can subjective dynamics be reversed in children with an ingroup norm of inclusivity? Paper presented at International Conference on “Discrimination and Tolerance in Intergroup Relations”, University of Jena, Germany, 30th June – 3rd July.

Benbow, A. & Rutland, A. (2010). When are we orientated towards other ethnic groups in multicultural settings? A comparison of the effect of ethnic identity, perceived similarity and typicality in minority and majority adolescents in Germany and the United Kingdom, Paper presented at International Conference on “Discrimination and Tolerance in Intergroup Relations”, University of Jena, Germany, 30th June – 3rd July.

Rutland, A. & Fitroy, S. (2010). Putting the brakes on children’s explicit ethnic bias: The role of emotions, social cognition and social norms. Paper presented at the Association for Psychological Science (APS) 22nd Annual Convention, Boston, USA, 27-30 May.

Rutland, A. & Fitroy, S. (2009). Social-cognitive developmental factors important to ethnic prejudice inhibition amongst ethnic majority British children. Paper presented at Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD), Denver, USA, 2-4th April.

Rutland, A., Cameron, L. & Hossain, R. (2009). Tackling children’s intergroup attitudes: Extended contact, parental and peer norms and anxiety. Paper presented at Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD), Denver, USA, 2-4th April.

Abrams, D., Rutland, A., Pelletier, J. & Ferrell, J. (2009). How do children evaluate and make sense of deviance in groups? Paper presented at Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD), Denver, USA, 2-4th April.

Rutland, A. & Fitroy, S. (2009). Self-regulation and prejudice development in childhood. Paper presented at the 10th Annual Meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP), Tampa, Florida, U.S.A., 5-7th February. 

Rutland, A.. & Fitzroy, S. (2008). The development of self-presentation and prejudice inhibition in childhood. Paper presented at 15th General Meeting of European Association of Experimental Social Psychology, Opatija, Croatia, 10-14th July.

Feddes, A., Noack, P. & Rutland, A. (2008). Group membership matters? Direct and extended friendship effects on minority and majority children’s intergroup attitudes. Paper presented at 15th General Meeting of European Association of Experimental Social Psychology, Opatija, Croatia, 10-14th July.

Jugert, P., Noack, P. & Rutland, A. (2008). A longitudinal study on development of preadolescents’ cross-ethnic friendships. Paper presented at 15th General Meeting of European Association of Experimental Social Psychology, Opatija, Croatia, 10-14th July.

Brown, R., Cameron, L., Rutland, A., Hossain, R., LeTouze, D., & Landau, A., Nigbur, D., & Watters, C., (2008). Acculturation process and social relations in young children: Why ‘integration’ is (mostly) good for you. Paper presented at 15th General Meeting of European Association of Experimental Social Psychology, Opatija, Croatia, 10-14th July.

Rodrigues, R., Correia, R., Morais, R., Monteiro, M. B. & Rutland, A. (2008).The development of children’s ethnic attitudes: The  role of perspective taking and social norms of inclusion as three path mediators of age effect. Paper presented at 15th General Meeting of European Association of Experimental Social Psychology, Opatija, Croatia, 10-14th July.

Cameron, L., & Rutland, A. (2008). “But do they want to be friends with me?” Using extended contact interventions to change children’s inter-group attitudes. Paper presented at 15th General Meeting of European Association of Experimental Social Psychology, Opatija, Croatia, 10-14th July.

Rutland, A., Abrams, D., Cameron, L., & Ferrell, J. (2007). Peer rejection: The importance of ingroup accountability and social norms. Paper presented in symposium convened by A. Rutland & D. Nesdale entitled “Peer relations: An intergroup and morality perspective” at 13th European Conference on Developmental Psychology, University of Jena, Germany, 21st-25th August.

Rutland, A., Brown, R. J., Cameron, L., Hossain, R., Le Touze, D., Nigbur, D. & Watters, C. (2007). Peer relations, ethnic identity, acculturation, amongst ethnic minority British children. Paper presented in symposium convened by A. Rutland & D. Nesdale entitled “Peer relations: An intergroup and morality perspective” at 13th European Conference on Developmental Psychology, University of Jena, Germany, 21st-25th August.

Feddes, A. , Noack, P. & Rutland, A. (2007). Development of Minority and majority children’s intergroup attitudes: The role of direct and extended cross-group friendships. Paper presented at 13th European Conference on Developmental Psychology, University of Jena, Germany, 21st-25th August.

Cameron, L., & Rutland, A. (2007). Extended contact interventions: Reducing prejudice in the classroom. Paper presented at 13th European Conference on Developmental Psychology, University of Jena, Germany, 21st-25th August .

Benbow, A. & Rutland, A. (2007). Predictors of bi-cultural competence in second generation immigrants to the United Kingdom, Paper presented at 13th European Conference on Developmental Psychology, University of Jena, Germany, 21st-25th August.

Rodrigues, R., Monteiro, M. B. & Rutland, A. (2007). Why does racial intergroup bias descrase with age? Perspective taking and social inclusion norm as three path mediators. Paper presented at 13th European Conference on Developmental Psychology, University of Jena, Germany, 21st-25th August.

Cameron, L., Rutland, A. & Hossain, L., (2007). Prejudice-reduction through story-reading: Indirect contact in the classroom. Paper presented in symposium convened by L. Cameron & A. Rutland entitled ‘Social inclusion and exclusion in children: An inter-group perspective’ at the 37th Annual Meeting of The Jean Piaget Society, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 31st May – 2nd June.

Rutland, A., Cameron, L., & Fitzroy, S. (2007). Children’s implicit and explicit prejudice: Self-presentation and social perspective taking. Paper presented invited symposium entitled ‘Social cognitive biases in development: A Neuroscientific Perspective’ at the 37th Annual Meeting of the Jean Piaget Society, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 31st May – 2nd June

Rutland, A., Cameron, L., Brown, R. J., Hossain, R., Le Touze, D., Nigbur, D. & Watters, C. (2007).  Ethnic identity and acculturation: The intrapersonal, interpersonal and intergroup consequences amongst Indian-British children. Paper presented in symposium convened by A. Rutland and A. Fuligni entitled‘Iinternational Perspectives on Ethnic Identity and the Adaptation of Immigrant Children and Adolescents’ at Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD), Boston, U.S.A., 29th March – 1st April.

Cameron, L., Rutland, A. & Brown, R. J. (2007). Extended Contact in the Classroom: Changing British Children's Attitudes towards Refugees. Paper presented in symposium convened by M. Killen entitled‘Social Developmental Outcomes of School Diversity and Intergroup Contact’ at Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD), Boston, U.S.A., 29th March – 1st April. 

Recent Referred National Conference Papers

Rutland, A. (2011). What are the origins of prejudice, ethnic homophily and intragroup biases? Paper in an Invited Symposium entitled “When, Why and How do Prejudice, Intergroup and Intragroup Bias Develop in Childhood: The Role of Social Identity, Group Norms and Social Cognition” (Convenor: Adam Rutland), presented at the British Psychology Society Social Section Annual Conference, University of Cambridge, 6-8th September.

Abrams, D., Rutland, A., Palmer, S. & Lee, S. (2011). Olympian dedication: Children’s understanding of intergroup norms, threat and intragroup dynamics. Paper presented at the British Psychology Society Social Section Annual Conference, University of Cambridge, 6-8th September.

Abrans, D., Lee, S. & Rutland, A. (2010). How do children anticipate out-group member's inclusion of ingroup members? The role of threat and group status. Paper presented at the British Psychology Society Developmental Section Annual Conference, Goldsmiths, University of London, 12-15th September.

Palmer, S., Cameron, L., Rutland, A., Powell, C. & Holman-Nicolas (2009). Promoting positive attitudes towards the disabled using imaginary contact. Paper presented at the British Psychology Society Social Section Annual Conference, University of Sheffield, 15-17th September.

Cameron, L., Rutland, A., Brown, R. J., Hossain, R., Landua, A., Le Touze, D. Nigbur, D. & Watters, C. (2009).Why ethnically diverse schools are a good thing: Acculturation and identity processes in young children. Paper presented at the British Psychology Society Social Section Annual Conference, University of Sheffield, 15-17th September

Nigbur, D., Brown, R., Cameron, L., Hossain, R., Landau, A. R., Le Touze, D. S., Rutland, A., & Watters, C. (2009). Is identification equivalent to acculturation? Dynamics of ethnicity and well-being among British primary-schoolers. Paper presented at the British Psychology Society Social Section Annual Conference, University of Sheffield, 15-17th September.

Rutland, A., Brown, R. J., Cameron, L., Hossain, R., Le Touze, D., Nigbur, D. & Watters, C. (2007). Peer exclusion and intergroup relations amongst British ethnic minority children. Paper presented at the British Psychology Society Social Section Annual Conference, University of Kent, Canterbury, 5-7th September. 

Research Interests

Social exclusion and inclusion in childhood and adolescence

Social exclusion and inclusion in childhood and adolescence that involves intergroup bias and prejudice, i.e., someone being rejected or accepted because of the social group they belong to or whether they behave in accordance with the norms of a social group (see Killen & Rutland. 2011). 

  • development of intergroup attitudes and prejudice in childhood

The development of attitudes in children towards members of their own social group (i.e. ingroup) and others from different social groups (i.e. outgroups), involving  recursive reasoning about other's mental and emotional states (e.g. Rutland, 2013; Fitzroy & Rutland, 2010). Our research has addressed the issue of why children from an early age show moral judgments and reasoning, yet they also can show both explicit and implicit intergroup biases and prejudice. This has lead to a new social-cognitive developmental perspective on prejudice which focuses on interplay between morality and group identity (see Rutland, Killen & Abrams, 2010). 

  • reduction of prejudice via intergroup contact in childhood

How prejudice can be challenged by encouraging contact between children of different social groups, either direct or indirect/extended. Our research has demonstrated how intergroup contact works by changing how a child perceives the relationships between social categories and the norms within groups (e.g., Feddes, Noack & Rutland, 2009). 

  • development of group dynamics, group norms and morality

How in middle childhood and into adolescence individuals develop a more sophisticated understanding of how social groups work (i.e. group dynamics) and the importance of groups norms when deciding how to think and behave within social groups. Underlying this process is the development of social perspective taking involving emotions, morality and social relationships (i.e. 'Theory of Social Mind') and the need to enhance group identity and maintain the norms of the social group (e.g. Abrams, Rutland, Pelletier & Ferrell, 2009; Killen, Rutland, Abrams, Mulvey & Hitti, 2013).

  • cross-ethnic friendships, acculturation and psychological well-being amongst children and adolescents

The development of cross-ethnic friendships, acculturation and group identity strategies and psychological well-being. Our longitudinal research has shown that  a bicultural group identity and a common in-group identity amongst ethnic minority status children is related to higher peer acceptance and less preference for same-ethnic friendships (e.g. Rutland et al.,  2012; Jugert, Noack & Rutland, 2012). We have developed a valid measure of acculturation amongst ethnic minority status 5-11 year old children, and shown its association with psychological well-being and social-emotional development (e.g., Brown et al., in press). 

Publications

Book

Children and Social exclusion: Morality, Prejudice and Group Identity
Rutland, Adam and Killen, Melanie. 2011. Children and Social exclusion: Morality, Prejudice and Group Identity. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.. ISBN 978-1405176514

Book Section

How do children learn to actively control their explicit biases: The role of recursive reasoning about mental states and group norms?
Rutland, Adam. 2013. How do children learn to actively control their explicit biases: The role of recursive reasoning about mental states and group norms? In: Mahzarin R Banajii and Susan A Gelman, eds. Navigating the Social World: What Infants, Children, and other Species Can Teach Us. USA: OUP USA, pp. 336-340. ISBN 978-0199890712

The development and self-regulation of intergroup attitudes in children
Rutland, Adam. 2013. The development and self-regulation of intergroup attitudes in children. In: Mark Bennett and Fabio Sani, eds. The development of the social self. East Sussex: Psychology Press, pp. 247-265. ISBN 978-0415649056

Children’s understanding of deviance and group dynamics: The development of subjective group dynamics.
Rutland, Adam and Abrams, Dominic. 2011. Children’s understanding of deviance and group dynamics: The development of subjective group dynamics. In: Jolanda Jetten and Matthew J Hornsey, eds. Rebels In Groups: Dissent, Deviance, Difference and Defiance. Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 135-157. ISBN 978-1405196857

Children, stereotypes and prejudice
Rutland, Adam. 2010. Children, stereotypes and prejudice. In: John Levine and Michael Hogg, eds. Encyclopedia of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations. London: SAGE. ISBN 978-1412942089

Social exclusion in middle childhood and early adolescence.
Rutland, Adam; Killen, Melanie and Jampol, N. 2009. Social exclusion in middle childhood and early adolescence. In: K H Rubin; W Bukowski and B Laursen, eds. Handbook of Peer Interactions, Relationships, and Groups. New York: Guilford Publications, pp. 249-266. ISBN 978-1593854416

An Integrative Approach to Changing Children’s Intergroup Attitudes
Rutland, Adam and Cameron, Lindsey. 2008. An Integrative Approach to Changing Children’s Intergroup Attitudes. In: Sheri Levy and Melanie Killen, eds. Intergroup Relations: An Integrative Developmental and Social Psychological Perspective. New York: OUP, pp. 191-203. ISBN 978-0195189742

The development of subjective group dynamics
Rutland, Adam and Abrams, Dominic. 2008. The development of subjective group dynamics. In: Sheri Levy and Melanie Killen, eds. Intergroup Relations: An Integrative Developmental and Social Psychological Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 47-65. ISBN 978-0195189742

Crossing thresholds –Acculturation and social capital in British Asian Children
Rutland, Adam; Watters, Charles; Hossain, Rosa and Brown, Rupert. Crossing thresholds –Acculturation and social capital in British Asian Children. In: Margaret Wetherell, ed. Theorizing Identities and Social Action (Identity Studies in the Social Sciences). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 198-219. ISBN 978-0230580886

Article

Group norms, intergroup resource allocation and social reasoning among children and adolescents
McGuire, Luke; Manstead, A. S. R. and Rutland, Adam. 2017. Group norms, intergroup resource allocation and social reasoning among children and adolescents. Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649

Competence matters! Understanding biculturalism in ethnically diverse adolescents
Benbow, Alison E. F. and Rutland, Adam. 2017. Competence matters! Understanding biculturalism in ethnically diverse adolescents. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 27(5), pp. 366-373. ISSN 1052-9284

Increasing ethnic diversity moderates longitudinal effects of individual differences on friendship homophily
Jugert, Philipp; Rutland, Adam; Brown, Rupert; Cameron, Lindsey; Nigbur, Dennis; Watters, Charles; Hossain, Rosa; Landau, Anick and Le Touze, Dominique. 2017. Increasing ethnic diversity moderates longitudinal effects of individual differences on friendship homophily. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 27(5), pp. 411-423. ISSN 1052-9284

Majority and minority ethnic status adolescents' bystander responses to racism in school
Palmer, Sally B.; Cameron, Lindsey; Rutland, Adam and Blake, Belinda. 2017. Majority and minority ethnic status adolescents' bystander responses to racism in school. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 27(5), pp. 374-380. ISSN 1052-9284

Cross-ethnic friendships, psychological well-being, and academic outcomes: Study of South Asian and White children in the UK
Bagci, Sabahat C.; Kumashiro, Madoka; Rutland, Adam; Smith, Peter K. and Blumberg, Herbert H.. 2017. Cross-ethnic friendships, psychological well-being, and academic outcomes: Study of South Asian and White children in the UK. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 14, pp. 190-205. ISSN 1740-5629

Fair Resource Allocation Among Children and Adolescents: The Role of Group and Developmental Processes
Rutland, Adam and Killen, Melanie. 2017. Fair Resource Allocation Among Children and Adolescents: The Role of Group and Developmental Processes. Child Development Perspectives, 11(1), pp. 56-62. ISSN 1750-8592

Fair Resource Allocation Among Children and Adolescents: The Role of Group and Developmental Processes
Rutland, Adam and Killen, Melanie. 2016. Fair Resource Allocation Among Children and Adolescents: The Role of Group and Developmental Processes. Child Development Perspectives, ISSN 1750-8592

Equity and Justice in Developmental Science: Discrimination, Social Exclusion, and Intergroup Attitudes
Killen, Melanie; Rutland, Adam and Yip, Tiffany. 2016. Equity and Justice in Developmental Science: Discrimination, Social Exclusion, and Intergroup Attitudes. Child Development, 87(5), pp. 1317-1336. ISSN 0009-3920

Conceptual Change in Science Is Facilitated Through Peer Collaboration for Boys but Not for Girls
Leman, Patrick J.; Skipper, Yvonne; Watling, Dawn and Rutland, Adam. 2016. Conceptual Change in Science Is Facilitated Through Peer Collaboration for Boys but Not for Girls. Child Development, 87(1), pp. 176-183. ISSN 0009-3920

The development of bystander intentions and social-moral reasoning about intergroup verbal aggression
Palmer, Sally B.; Rutland, Adam and Cameron, Lindsey. 2015. The development of bystander intentions and social-moral reasoning about intergroup verbal aggression. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 33(4), pp. 419-433. ISSN 0261510X

Peer Group Norms and Accountability Moderate the Effect of School Norms on Children's Intergroup Attitudes
McGuire, Luke; Rutland, Adam and Nesdale, Drew. 2015. Peer Group Norms and Accountability Moderate the Effect of School Norms on Children's Intergroup Attitudes. Child Development, 86(4), pp. 1290-1297. ISSN 0009-3920

When Does the In-Group Like the Out-Group? Bias Among Children as a Function of Group Norms
Rutland, Adam; Hitti, Aline; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Abrams, Dominic and Killen, Melanie. 2015. When Does the In-Group Like the Out-Group? Bias Among Children as a Function of Group Norms. Psychological Science, 26(6), pp. 834-842. ISSN 0956-7976

A Developmental Science Approach to Reducing Prejudice and Social Exclusion: Intergroup Processes, Social-Cognitive Development, and Moral Reasoning
Rutland, Adam and Killen, Melanie. 2015. A Developmental Science Approach to Reducing Prejudice and Social Exclusion: Intergroup Processes, Social-Cognitive Development, and Moral Reasoning. Social Issues and Policy Review, 9(1), pp. 121-154. ISSN 1751-2395

The role of cognitive abilities in children's inferences about social atypicality and peer exclusion and inclusion in intergroup contexts
Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Palmer, Sally B.; Pelletier, Joseph; Ferrell, Jennifer M. and Lee, Samantha. 2014. The role of cognitive abilities in children's inferences about social atypicality and peer exclusion and inclusion in intergroup contexts. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 32(3), pp. 233-247. ISSN 0261-510X

Children's responses to social atypicality among group members – advantages of a contextualized social developmental account
Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Palmer, Sally B. and Purewal, Kiran. 2014. Children's responses to social atypicality among group members – advantages of a contextualized social developmental account. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 32(3), pp. 257-261. ISSN 0261-510X

When Is It Okay to Exclude a Member of the Ingroup? Children's and Adolescents’ Social Reasoning
Hitti, Aline; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Rutland, Adam; Abrams, Dominic and Killen, Melanie. 2014. When Is It Okay to Exclude a Member of the Ingroup? Children's and Adolescents’ Social Reasoning. Social Development, 23(3), pp. 451-469. ISSN 0961-205X

Cross-ethnic friendships: Are they really rare? Evidence from secondary schools around London
Bagci, Sabahat C.; Kumashiro, Madoka; Smith, Peter K.; Blumberg, Herbert H. and Rutland, Adam. 2014. Cross-ethnic friendships: Are they really rare? Evidence from secondary schools around London. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 41, pp. 125-137. ISSN 0147-1767

Context differences in children’s ingroup preferences.
Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Hitti, Aline; Rutland, Adam; Abrams, Dominic and Killen, Melanie. 2014. Context differences in children’s ingroup preferences. Developmental Psychology, 50(5), pp. 1507-1519. ISSN 0012-1649

When do children dislike ingroup members?: Resource allocation from individual and group perspectives.
Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Hitti, Aline; Rutland, Adam; Abrams, Dominic and Killen, Melanie. 2014. When do children dislike ingroup members?: Resource allocation from individual and group perspectives. Journal of Social Issues, 70(1), pp. 29-46. ISSN 0022-4537

Are minority status children's cross-ethnic friendships beneficial in a multiethnic context?
Bagci, Sabahat C.; Rutland, Adam; Kumashiro, Madoka; Smith, Peter K. and Blumberg, Herbert H.. 2014. Are minority status children's cross-ethnic friendships beneficial in a multiethnic context? British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 32(1), pp. 107-115. ISSN 0261-510X

Are minority status children's cross-ethnic friendships beneficial in a multiethnic context?
Bagci, Sabahat C.; Rutland, Adam; Kumashiro, Madoka; Smith, Peter K. and Blumberg, Herbert H.. 2014. Are minority status children's cross-ethnic friendships beneficial in a multiethnic context? British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 32(1), pp. 107-115. ISSN 0261510X

Evaluations of and reasoning about normative and deviant ingroup and outgroup members: Development of the black sheep effect.
Abrams, Dominic; Palmer, Sally B.; Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey and Van de Vyver, Julie. 2014. Evaluations of and reasoning about normative and deviant ingroup and outgroup members: Development of the black sheep effect. Developmental Psychology, 50(1), pp. 258-270. ISSN 0012-1649

Acculturation attitudes and social adjustment in British South Asian children: A longitudinal study
Brown, Rupert; Baysu, Gülseli; Cameron, Lindsey; Nigbur, Dennis; Rutland, Adam; Watters, Charles; Hossain, Rosa; LeTouze, Dominique and Landau, Anick. 2013. Acculturation attitudes and social adjustment in British South Asian children: A longitudinal study. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(12), pp. 1656-1667. ISSN 0146-1672

Development of Intra- and Intergroup Judgments in the Context of Moral and Social-Conventional Norms
Killen, Melanie; Rutland, Adam; Abrams, Dominic; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn and Hitt, Aline. 2013. Development of Intra- and Intergroup Judgments in the Context of Moral and Social-Conventional Norms. Child Development, 84(3), pp. 1063-1080. ISSN 0009-3920

Evaluations of, and reasoning about, normative and deviant ingroup and outgroup Members: Development of the Black Sheep Effect
Abrams, Dominic; Palmer, Sally B.; Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey and Van de Vyyer, J. 2013. Evaluations of, and reasoning about, normative and deviant ingroup and outgroup Members: Development of the Black Sheep Effect. Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649

Children’s cross-ethnic friendships: Why are they less stable than same-ethnic friendships?
Jugent, Philipp; Noack, Peter and Rutland, Adam. 2013. Children’s cross-ethnic friendships: Why are they less stable than same-ethnic friendships? European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 10, pp. 649-662. ISSN 1740-5629

What works to address prejudice? Look to developmental science research for the answer. Commentary.
Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn and Rutland, Adam. 2012. What works to address prejudice? Look to developmental science research for the answer. Commentary. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 35(6), p. 439. ISSN 0140-525X

Group identity and peer relations: A longitudinal study of group identity, perceived peer acceptance and friendships amongst ethnic minority English children.
Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Nigbur, Dennis; Brown, Rupert; Hossain, Rosa; Landau, Anick; LeTouze, Dominique; Watters, Charles and Jugent, Philipp. 2012. Group identity and peer relations: A longitudinal study of group identity, perceived peer acceptance and friendships amongst ethnic minority English children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 30, pp. 283-302. ISSN 0261-510X

Friendship Preferences Among German and Turkish Preadolescents
Jugert, Philipp; Noack, Peter and Rutland, Adam. 2011. Friendship Preferences Among German and Turkish Preadolescents. Child Development, 82(3), pp. 812-829. ISSN 0009-3920

Promoting equity and justice in childhood: Policy implications
Killen, Melanie; Rutland, Adam and Ruck, Martin. 2011. Promoting equity and justice in childhood: Policy implications. Social Policy Report, 25(4), pp. 1-25. ISSN 1075-7031

Do children want skinny friends? The role of ‘weight’ in children’s friendship preferences and intergroup attitudes
Palmer, Sally B. and Rutland, Adam. 2011. Do children want skinny friends? The role of ‘weight’ in children’s friendship preferences and intergroup attitudes. Anales de Psicologia, 27(3), pp. 698-707. ISSN 0212-9728

Changing attitudes with a little imagination’: Imagined contact effects on young children’s intergroup bias.
Cameron, Lindsey; Rutland, Adam; Turner, Rhiannon; Holman-Nicolas, Rosie and Powell, Claire. 2011. Changing attitudes with a little imagination’: Imagined contact effects on young children’s intergroup bias. Anales de Psicología, 27(3), pp. 708-717. ISSN 0212-9728

When and why does extended contact work? The role of high quality direct contact and group norms in the development of positive ethnic intergroup attitudes amongst children.
Cameron, Lindsey; Rutland, Adam; Hossain, Rosa and Petley, Rebecca. 2011. When and why does extended contact work? The role of high quality direct contact and group norms in the development of positive ethnic intergroup attitudes amongst children. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 14(2), pp. 193-206. ISSN 1368-4302

A New Social-Cognitive Developmental Perspective on Prejudice: The Interplay Between Morality and Group Identity
Rutland, Adam; Killen, Melanie and Abrams, Dominic. 2010. A New Social-Cognitive Developmental Perspective on Prejudice: The Interplay Between Morality and Group Identity. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(3), pp. 279-291. ISSN 1745-6916

Learning to control ethnic intergroup bias in childhood
Fitzroy, Sarah and Rutland, Adam. 2010. Learning to control ethnic intergroup bias in childhood. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40(4), pp. 679-693. ISSN 0046-2772

Children’s Group Nous: Understanding and Applying Peer Exclusion Within and Between Groups
Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Pelletier, Joseph and Ferrell, Jennifer M.. 2009. Children’s Group Nous: Understanding and Applying Peer Exclusion Within and Between Groups. Child Development, 80(1), pp. 224-243. ISSN 0009-3920

Direct and Extended Friendship Effects on Minority and Majority Children’s Interethnic Attitudes: A Longitudinal Study
Feddes, Allard R.; Noack, Peter and Rutland, Adam. 2009. Direct and Extended Friendship Effects on Minority and Majority Children’s Interethnic Attitudes: A Longitudinal Study. Child Development, 80(2), pp. 377-390. ISSN 0009-3920

Children's judgments of disloyal and immoral peer behavior: subjective group dynamics in minimal intergroup contexts
Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Ferrell, Jennifer M. and Pelletier, Joseph. 2008. Children's judgments of disloyal and immoral peer behavior: subjective group dynamics in minimal intergroup contexts. Child Development, 79(2), pp. 444-461. ISSN 0009-3920

Children’s judgments of disloyal and immoral peer behaviour: Subjective group dynamics in minimal intergroup contexts
Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Ferrell, Jennifer M. and Pelletier, Joseph. 2008. Children’s judgments of disloyal and immoral peer behaviour: Subjective group dynamics in minimal intergroup contexts. Child Development, 79(2), pp. 444-461. ISSN 0009-3920

Acculturation, well-being and classroom behaviour among white British and British Asian primary-school children in the south–east of England: Validating a child-friendly measure of acculturation attitudes
Nigbur, Dennis; Brown, Rupert; Cameron, Lindsey; Hossain, Rosa; Landau, Anick; LeTouze, Dominique; Rutland, Adam and Watters, Charles. 2008. Acculturation, well-being and classroom behaviour among white British and British Asian primary-school children in the south–east of England: Validating a child-friendly measure of acculturation attitudes. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 32(6), pp. 493-504. ISSN 0147-1767

Stability and variability in national and European self-identification
Rutland, Adam; Cinnerella, Marco and Simpson, Rhona. 2008. Stability and variability in national and European self-identification. European Psychologist, 13(4), pp. 267-276. ISSN 1016-9040

Promoting children’s positive intergroup attitudes towards stigmatized groups: Extended contact and multiple classification skills training
Cameron, Lindsey; Rutland, Adam and Brown, Rupert. 2007. Promoting children’s positive intergroup attitudes towards stigmatized groups: Extended contact and multiple classification skills training. International Journal of Behaviorial Development, 31(5), pp. 454-466. ISSN 0165-0254

Older but Wilier: Ingroup accountability and the development of subjective group dynamics
Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey and Ferrell, Jennifer M.. 2007. Older but Wilier: Ingroup accountability and the development of subjective group dynamics. Developmental Psychology, 43, pp. 134-148. ISSN 0012-1649

Development of the positive-negative asymmetry effect: In-group exclusion norm as a mediator of children’s evaluations on negative attributes
Rutland, Adam; Brown, Rupert; Cameron, Lindsey; Ahmavaara, Annie; Arnold, Katie and Samson, Jenni. 2007. Development of the positive-negative asymmetry effect: In-group exclusion norm as a mediator of children’s evaluations on negative attributes. European Journal of Social Psychology, 37(1), pp. 171-190. ISSN 0046-2772

Extending the conversation: Transdisciplinary approaches to social identity and intergroup attitudes in children and adolescents
Rutland, Adam; Abrams, Dominic and Levy, Sheri. 2007. Extending the conversation: Transdisciplinary approaches to social identity and intergroup attitudes in children and adolescents. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31(5), pp. 417-418. ISSN 0165-0254

Social capital, ethnicity and children’s well-being: Aspects of social capital in the everyday lives of British Punjabi children
Hossain, Rosa; Watters, Charles; Brown, Rupert; Cameron, Lindsey; Landau, Anick; LeTouze, Dominique; Nigbur, Dennis and Rutland, Adam. 2007. Social capital, ethnicity and children’s well-being: Aspects of social capital in the everyday lives of British Punjabi children. International Journal of Migration, Health, and Social Care, 3(2), pp. 4-21. ISSN 1747-9894

Changing children’s intergroup attitudes towards refugees: Testing different models of extended contact.
Cameron, Lindsey; Rutland, Adam; Brown, Rupert and Douch, Rebecca. 2006. Changing children’s intergroup attitudes towards refugees: Testing different models of extended contact. Child Development, 77(5), pp. 1208-1219. ISSN 0009-3920

Extended contact through story reading in school: Reducing children’s prejudice towards the disabled
Cameron, Lindsey and Rutland, Adam. 2006. Extended contact through story reading in school: Reducing children’s prejudice towards the disabled. Journal of Social Issues, 62(3), pp. 489-510. ISSN 0022-4537

Social norms and self-presentation: Children’s implicit and explicit intergroup attitudes
Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Milne, Alan and McGeorge, Peter. 2005. Social norms and self-presentation: Children’s implicit and explicit intergroup attitudes. Child Development, 76(2), pp. 451-466. ISSN 0009-3920

Context differences in children's ingroup preferences
Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Hitti, Aline; Rutland, Adam; Abrams, Dominic and Killen, Melanie. Context differences in children's ingroup preferences. Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649