Bikes and Bloomers

Victorian Women Inventors and their Extraordinary Cycle Wear

Kat Jungnickel


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The bicycle in Victorian Britain is often celebrated as a vehicle of women's liberation. Less noted is another critical technology with which women forged new and mobile public lives—cycle wear. This illustrated account of women’s cycle wear from Goldsmiths Press brings together Victorian engineering and radical feminist invention to supply a missing chapter in the history of feminism.

Despite its benefits, cycling was a material and ideological minefield for women. Conventional fashions were unworkable, with skirts catching in wheels and tangling in pedals. Yet wearing “rational” cycle wear could provoke verbal and sometimes physical abuse from those threatened by newly mobile women. Seeking a solution, pioneering women not only imagined, made, and wore radical new forms of cycle wear but also patented their inventive designs. The most remarkable of these were convertible costumes that enabled wearers to transform ordinary clothing into cycle wear.

Drawing on in-depth archival research and inventive practice, Kat Jungnickel brings to life in rich detail the little-known stories of six inventors of the 1890s. Alice Bygrave, a dressmaker of Brixton, registered four patents for a skirt with a dual pulley system built into its seams. Julia Gill, a court dressmaker of Haverstock Hill, patented a skirt that drew material up the waist using a mechanism of rings or eyelets. Mary and Sarah Pease, sisters from York, patented a skirt that could be quickly converted into a fashionable high-collar cape. Henrietta Müller, a women’s rights activist of Maidenhead, patented a three-part cycling suit with a concealed system of loops and buttons to elevate the skirt. And Mary Ann Ward, a gentlewoman of Bristol, patented the “Hyde Park Safety Skirt,” which gathered fabric at intervals using a series of side buttons on the skirt. Their unique contributions to cycling’s past continue to shape urban life for contemporary mobile women.


What a joy to discover these rad, bad divas of the bicycle! Kat Jungnickel’s fascinating exploration of these early cyclists and innovative entrepreneurs opens our eyes to the fearless work of feminists past, the obstacles they overcame and how we can stand on their shoulders now. Rebecca Mordan, Artistic Director of feminist theatre company Scary Little Girls
Utterly fascinating, beautifully written and a work of supreme scholarship. Much more than an account of an emergent Victorian cycling revolution, this is a social history told through the story of invention, technology, craft and female subjugation. More importantly, this is a book about controlling narratives and the telling of history itself. Dallas Campbell, BBC presenter Bang Goes the Theory, author of Ad Astra: An Illustrated Guide to Leaving the Planet
I was fascinated by this book, and by what I learned about what we wear on bikes and how women have (and still are) working to make it all fit better. So much has changed since the days of bloomers, and yet so much hasn’t. Kat Jungnickel’s book is a valuable new resource for anyone interested in women riding bikes, and how they do it. Emily Chappell , Fastest woman in the Transcontinental Race (2016), founding member of the Adventure Syndicate and author of What Goes Around: A London Cycle Courier's Story

Kat Jungnickel

Kat Jungnickel is a Senior Lecturer in the Sociology department of Goldsmiths, University of London.