BA, Cambridge, 1978
PhD, Cambridge, 1983
Thesis entitled 'The Political Struggle in Livorno, 1918-1922: The Rise of Fascism in a Socialist Stronghold.'
Dictators, War and Revolution
Italian Terrorism in the 20th Century
Rifondazione Comunista: a party of protest or a party of government?
The Moro Affair: Interpretations and Consequences
Catholic-Jewish Relations in Italy from Unification to the Second Vatican Council (1870-1965)
Italy's Long Road to Austerity and the Paradoxes of Communism
Palmiro Togliatti, Loyal Servant of Stalin
My research interests include Italian fascism, Italian Communism, Italian labour history and recent developments in Italian politics.