Professor Tim Valentine

Staff details

Position Emeritus Professor
Department Psychology
Email t.valentine (
Phone +44 (0)20 7919 7871
Professor Tim Valentine

Research Interests

Tim's research is about our ability to recognise and identify people’s faces. His current research is focussed on factors that affect the reliability of eyewitness identification. Previously, he has worked extensively on 'face-space' models of face recognition, with emphasis on the roles of facial distinctiveness, ethnicity and caricature. Other projects have included work on rehabilitation of face memory after brain injury and exploring the structure of our knowledge for familiar people. He regularly provides expert advice on identification issues in criminal cases.

Publications and research outputs

Edited Book

Bull, Ray; Valentine, Tim and Williamson, Tom, eds. 2009. Handbook of psychology of investigative interviewing: current developments and future directions. Chichester: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-51267-8

Book Section

Valentine, Tim. 2014. Estimating the reliability of eyewitness identification. In: T.J. Perfect and D. S. Lindsay, eds. Sage handbook of applied memory. London: Sage, pp. 579-594. ISBN 978-1-4462-0842-7

Valentine, Tim; Hughes, Carwyn and Munro, Rod. 2009. Recent developments in eyewitness identification procedures in the United Kingdom. In: Ray Bull; Tim Valentine and Tom Williamson, eds. The handbook of psychology of investigative interviewing. Chichester: Wiley, pp. 221-240. ISBN 0470512687


Valentine, Tim; Hills, Peter J and Lewis, Michael B. 2016. Face-space: A unifying concept in face recognition research. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 69(10), pp. 1996-2019. ISSN 1747-0218

Davis, Josh P.; Valentine, Tim; Memon, Amina and Roberts, Andrew J.. 2015. Identification on the street: a field comparison of police street identifications and video line-ups in England. Psychology, Crime and Law, 21(1), pp. 1-19. ISSN 1068-316X

Roberts, Andrew; Davis, Josh; Valentine, Tim and Memon, Amina. 2014. Should We Be Concerned About Street Identifications? Criminal Law Review(9), pp. 633-654. ISSN 0011-135X

Smith-Spark, J.; Moore, V. and Valentine, Tim. 2013. Determinants of famous name processing speed: Age of acquisition versus semantic connectedness. Acta Psychologica, 142, pp. 230-237.

Hobson, Z.; Wilcock, R. and Valentine, Tim. 2013. Multiple suspect showings: A survey of police identification officers. Policing, 7, pp. 79-87.

Valentine, Tim; Davis, Josh P.; Memon, Amina and Roberts, Andrew. 2012. Live Showups and Their Influence on a Subsequent Video Line-up. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26(1), pp. 1-23. ISSN 0888-4080

Valentine, Tim; Davis, Josh P.; Memon, Amina and Roberts, A. 2012. Live showups and their influence on a subsequent video lineup. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26(1), pp. 1-23. ISSN 0888-4080

Smith-Spark, J.; Moore, V. and Valentine, Tim. 2012. Long-term age of acquisition effects in famous name processing. Acta Psychologica, 139, pp. 202-211.

Valentine, Tim and Maras, K. 2011. The effect of cross-examination on the accuracy of adult eyewitness testimony. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25(4), pp. 554-561. ISSN 0888-4080

Davis, Josh P.; Valentine, Tim and Davis, Robert. 2010. Computer assisted photo-anthropometric analyses of full-face and profile facial images. Forensic Science International, 200(1-3), pp. 165-176. ISSN 0379-0738

Valentine, Tim; Davis, Josh P.; Thorner, Kate; Solomon, Chris and Gibson, Stuart. 2010. Evolving and combining facial composites: Between-witness and within-witness morphs compared. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 16(1), pp. 72-86. ISSN 1076-898X

Davis, Josh P. and Valentine, Tim. 2009. CCTV on trial: Matching video images with the defendant in the dock. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 23(4), pp. 482-505. ISSN 0888-4080

Valentine, Tim and Mesout, Jan. 2009. Eyewitness identification under stress in the London Dungeon. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 23(2), pp. 151-161. ISSN 0888-4080

Thompson, Peter; Anstis, S. M.; Rhodes, G. and Valentine, Tim. 2009. Thompson's 1980 paper. Perception, 38(6), pp. 921-932. ISSN 0301-0066

Angeli, Adriana; Davidoff, Jules B. and Valentine, Tim. 2008. Face familiarity, distinctiveness, and categorical perception. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61(5), pp. 690-707. ISSN 1747-0218

Powell, Jane H.; Letson, Susan; Davidoff, Jules B.; Valentine, Tim and Greenwood, Richard. 2008. Enhancement of face recognition learning in patients with brain injury using three cognitive training procedures. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 18(2), pp. 182-203. ISSN 0960-2011

Darling, Stephen; Valentine, Tim and Memon, Amina. 2008. Selection of lineup foils in operational contexts. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22(2), pp. 159-169. ISSN 08884080

Valentine, Tim; Darling, Stephen and Memon, Amina. 2007. Do strict rules and moving images increase the reliability of sequential identification procedures? Applied Cognitive Psychology, 21(7), pp. 933-949. ISSN 08884080

Valentine, Tim and Stone, A.. 2007. The categorical structure of knowledge for famous people (and a novel application of Centre-Surround theory). Cognition, 104(3), pp. 535-564. ISSN 00100277

Valentine, Tim; Powell, Jane H.; Davidoff, Jules B.; Letson, Susan and Greenwood, Richard. 2006. Prevalence and correlates of face recognition impairments after acquired brain injury. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 16(3), pp. 272-297. ISSN 0960-2011

Valentine, Tim and Darling, S.. 2005. The categorical structure of semantic memory for famous people: A new approach using release from proactive interference. Cognition, 96(1), pp. 35-65. ISSN 00100277

Valentine, Tim; Darling, Stephen and Donnelly, Mary. 2004. Why are average faces attractive? The effect of view and averageness on the attractiveness of female faces. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11(3), pp. 482-487. ISSN 1069-9384

Stone, Anna and Valentine, Tim. 2004. Better the devil you know? Non-conscious processing of identity and affect of famous faces. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11(3), pp. 469-474. ISSN 1069-9384

Valentine, Tim; Darling, S. and Pickering, Alan. 2003. Characteristics of eyewitness identification that predict the outcome of real lineups. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 17(8), pp. 969-993. ISSN 08884080

Valentine, Tim and Hollis, J.. 2001. Proper name processing: Are proper names pure referencing expressions? Journal of Experimental Psychology Learning Memory and Cognition, 27(1), pp. 99-116. ISSN 02787393

Valentine, Tim and Heaton, Pam F.. 1999. An evaluation of the fairness of police line-ups and video identifications. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13(S1), S59-S72. ISSN 08884080